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CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS

CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS

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CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS

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  1. Emotional Intellectual Physical Social CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS Mrs. Beryl Thornton Colleton County High School 2012

  2. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Series of Stages • Emotional Experiences of Childhood affect Adult Life • http://allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html

  3. Maria Montessori (1870-1952) • Learn by using their senses • Learn best when pursuing their interests • Give children objects to Manipulate to exercise senses. http://www.michaelolaf.net/1CW312MI.html • http://www.bgmontessori.com/montessori/101

  4. Arnold Gesell (1880-1961) • Developed a Typical Order of Mastery • Typical Rate of Development • http://www.education.com/reference/article/arnold-gesell-child-learning-development-theory/

  5. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • First Scientific Study of Children • Four Stages of Thinking that Shape how they see and learn about the world. • Sensorimotor (0-2 years) • Preoperational (2-7 years) • Concrete Operations (7-11) • Formal Operations (11-adult) • Provide activities and materials suitable to each stage. http://psychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/09/05/theories-of-cognitive-development-jean-piaget/

  6. Lev Vygotsky (1898-1934) • Biological & Cultural experiences influence ability to think & learn. • Social contact is essential for intellectual development. • Provide many opportunities for social interaction to develop intellectually. http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html

  7. Erik Erikson (1902-1994) • Each Stage includes a Unique Psychological Crisis which affects future development. • Needs should be met with positive care at each stage. • Examples: Trust vs. mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame, Separation anxiety http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm

  8. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) • Child’s actions bring positive effects--action will be repeated. • Negative results occur, child will eventually stop the action. • Rewards and punishments can influence a child’s behavior. • http://www.kidsdevelopment.co.uk/bfskinnersbehaviouraltheory.html

  9. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • Pyramid of needs: • Self Actualization • Self Esteem • Belonging • Love • Safety • Physical Needs http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs

  10. Albert Bandura (1925- • Learn by Modeling • Behavior also affects environment • Children need good examples of behavior. • http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html

  11. Robert Coles (1929- • Moral Development is learned. • Adult Moral Behavior Examples are important. • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/gergen/february97/coles_2-21.html

  12. Howard Gardner (1943- ) Multiple Intelligences Theory of Learning • Linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Musical • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.shtml

  13. WORKS CITED Brisbane, Holly. “Understanding Childhood.” The Developing Child. Glencoe, New York: 2004. “Sigmund Freud,” All about Psychology. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html September 23, 2012. “Arnold Gesell” Education. www.education.com/reference/article/arnold-gesell-child-learning-development-theory . September 23, 2012. “Abraham Maslow.” Wikipedia in England. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs . Sept. 23, 2012. “Howard Gardner.” Indiana University. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.shtml ,Sept. 23, 2012. “Albert Bandura.” Learning Theories. http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html “Maria Montessori.” Michael OLAF http://www.michaelolaf.net/1CW312MI.htmlSept. 23, 2012. “Montessori 101.” Montessori Children’s House. www.montessori.com/montessori/101 September 29,2012. “Robert Coles.” Public Broadcasting Station. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/gergen/february97/coles_2-21.html Sept. 23, 2012. “Jean Piaget.” Psychology Hawks. http://psychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/09/05/theorieof-cognitive- development-jean-piaget/ September 23, 2012.