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CHAPTER 6

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  1. CHAPTER 6 PHYSICAL FITNESS FOR LIFE

  2. Section 1: Physical Fitness and Your Health

  3. Section One- Key Terms PHYSICAL FITNESS • The ability of the body to perform daily physical activities without getting out of breath, sore, or overly tired CHRONIC DISEASE • The ability of the body to perform daily physical activities without getting out of breath, sore, or overly tired HEALTH RELATED FITNESS • Fitness qualities that are necessary to promote a healthy body RESTING HEART RATE (RHR) - The number of times the heart beats per minute while at rest

  4. Physical benefits of physical activity • Heart and lungs get stronger • Builds muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility • Good muscle to fat ratio • Metabolic rate is increased

  5. Mental benefits of physical activity • Reduce anxiety • Reduce depression • Increase self-confidence • Improve image

  6. Social benefits of physical activity • Working together on a team • Develop communication skills • Meet new people

  7. RECOVERY TIME The amount of time it takes for the heart to return to RHR after an activity

  8. TYPES OF ACTIVTY • Anaerobic: muscle cells produce energy without using oxygen • Short & Sharp Bursts • Anaerobic w/out Oxygen • Less than 20 sec • Fitter Anaerobically • Work at higher Intensity (Work Harder) • Work at same intensity for longer • Example: weight lifting and sprinting

  9. Aerobic Energy • Aerobic: muscle cells use oxygen to produce energy for movement • 20 sec + • Aerobic = Oxygen • Fitter Aerobically • Go faster or longer or both • Go the same but easier Example: long distance running

  10. 5 COMPONENTS OF HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS

  11. 1. MUSCULAR STRENGTH • Amount of force that a muscle can apply in a given contraction • “ONE BIG EFFORT” example: lifting weights, Volleyball jump, shot put

  12. 2. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • The ability of the muscles to keep working over a period of time • “Over and over again” • Usually Lower Intensity example: cross country skiing, running, swimming

  13. 3. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • The ability of your heart, lungs, blood vessels, and blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to all of your body’s cells example: running

  14. 4. FLEXIBILITY • The ability of the joints to move through their full range of motion • Usually the most forgotten one example: stretching

  15. 5. BODY COMPOSITION • Refers to the ratio of lean body tissue to body fat tissue example: eating healthy

  16. 6. Motivation • The willingness to focus attention and energy on a movement • Paid, Goals, Look Good, Desire to be healthy, socializing

  17. BODY FAT PERCENTAGE • Females: 14-21% • Males: 9-15%

  18. Other Health Related Components Muscular Speed Muscular Power Ability to transfer energy into force is power. Combination of Speed and Strength Near maximum effort over short period of time Wrestling, Tug of War • Moderate Force at a high speed. • Can perform movement in short period of time • Sprinters, Pitchers, Volleyball Spike • The “lucky few”

  19. Components of Fitness Skill Related Agility - The ability to change directions of the body quickly and accurately

  20. Components of Fitness Skill Related Balance- Body’s ability to maintain equilibrium (stability) while stationary or moving

  21. Components of Skill Related Fitness • Coordination The ability to combine body parts and eyes to perform a movement task.

  22. Components of Skill Related Fitness • Reaction Time the time it takes to start moving once a stimulus is given.

  23. Section 2: Planning Your Fitness Program

  24. What to think about before starting??? • Do you have any health concerns • Are you healthy enough • What types of activities do you enjoy • How much will your planned activities cost

  25. TARGET HEART RATE ZONE • A heart rate range within which the most gains in cardiorespiratory health will occur • Normally between 60-85% of your maximum heart rate

  26. Calculate Your THR Zone • Determine your MHR 220-age 2. Find your THR zone *multiply your MHR by .6 and also by .85

  27. THR for a 16 year old • 220 – 16= 204 • 204 * .6 = 122 • 204 * .85= 173 122 – 173 beats per minute

  28. BOYS Age 1424-25 Age 15-1724-47 GIRLS Age 1418-32 Age 15-17 18-35 Sit-Up Standards

  29. BOYS Age 149:30-7:00 Age 15 9:00-7:00 Age 16-17 8:30-7:00 GIRLS Age 14 11:00-8:30 Age 15 10:30-8:00 Age 16-17 10:00-8:00 One Mile Run Standards

  30. FITT A formula made up of frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise

  31. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week • Intensity: 85% MHR for 20 minutes 60% for 60 minutes • TIME 20 to 60 minutes • Type: aerobic activity such as jogging

  32. Muscular Strength / Endurance • Frequency: 2 to 4 days per week • Intensity: 8 to 12 reps 2 to 3 sets • Time: 30 to 60 minutes • Type: anaerobic activity such as weight lifting

  33. When will I see results??? • The length it takes to see a difference varies from person to person. On average, it takes about 6 weeks to really notice a difference. • DON”T GET DISCOURAGED!!!!!

  34. Section 3: Exercising The Safe Way

  35. DEHYDRATION A state in which the body has lost more water than has been taken in

  36. OVERTRAINING Caused by exceeding the recommendations of the FITT formula

  37. Ways to Avoid Sports Injuries • Get conditioned • Warm up and Cool down • Avoid dehydration • Avoid overtraining

  38. Warning Signs of Overtraining • Permanent Injury • Feelings of chronic fatigue • Dehydration • Loss of appetite and weight • Loss of interest in working out • Poor athletic performance and poor school performance

  39. “Records are meant to be broken, not Athletes” Cal Ripken JR.

  40. Treating Minor Sports Injuries • R est • I ce • C ompression • E levation

  41. COMMON INJURIES and TREATMENT Connective Tissue • Ligament: connects bone to bone • Tendon: connects muscle to bone • Cartilage: found in various parts of the body especially joint. Cushions against shock

  42. Ligament Sprain • Cause: forcing a joint to move beyond its normal limits can cause ligament fibers to tear • Treatment: RICE and strengthening of the muscles and tendons around the joint through rehabilitation

  43. FRACTURE • Cause: extreme stress and strain causes cracks in bone • Treatment: immediate medical attention; rest and immobility for 6 to 8 weeks

  44. CONCUSSION • Cause: a blow to the head, face, or jaw that causes the brain to be shaken in the skull • Treatment: rest under observation; medical attention if there is unconsciousness

  45. COMMON SUPPLEMENT INGREDIENTS AND DRUGS

  46. CAFFEINE • How does it affect the body? A central nervous system stimulant that makes you feel awake and alert • Dangers: raises blood pressure and heart rate; affects sleep, mood, and behavior; can lead to dehydration by increasing urination

  47. ANABOLIC STEROIDS • How does it affect the body?: increase muscle size and strength • Dangers: increase aggressive behavior, and risk of kidney tumors; can cause severe acne, testicular shrinkage, and fatal damage to heart muscle; can stunt growth in teens

  48. Section 4: Sleep

  49. TEENS NEED ABOUT 9 HOURS AND 15 MINUTES OF SLEEP A NIGHT

  50. STAGES OF SLEEP • NREM: non rapid eye movement • REM: rapid eye movement or “dream sleep”