Desalination – Getting fresh water from sea water. Water Cycle -- The continuous movement of water between Earth’s surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid Evaporation – the slow changing of a liquid into a gas Water Vapor– water in the form of a gas Condensation– the changing of a gas into a liquid Precipitation– any form of water particles that fall from the atmosphere and reaches the ground
Groundwater– precipitation that seeps into the ground and is stored in tiny holes, or pores in soil and rocks. Water Cycle Jump • Aquifer– an underground layer of rock or soil filled with water • Water Table– the top of the water-filled spaces in the ground • Spring– a place where groundwater seeps out of the ground • Reservoir– a storage area for fresh water supplies • Well– a hole dug below the water table that water seeps into
Atmosphere – the blanket of gases that surrounds Earth Troposphere – the layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth Insolation – IncomingSOLarRadiaTION; the amount of the Sun’s energy that reaches Earth at a given time and place.
Air Pressure– The force put on a given area by the weight of the air above it. Barometer– a device for measuring air pressure Isobar– a line on a weather map connecting places with equal air pressure
Wind – air that moves horizontally Sea Breeze – wind that blows from the sea to land Land Breeze – wind that blows from the land to sea Coriolis Effect– the curving of the path of a moving object caused by Earth’s rotation
Convection – the flow of heat through a liquid or a gas, causing the hot parts to and cooler parts to rise sink. Convection Cell – a circular pattern of air rising, air sinking, and wind. Air Mass – a large region of the atmosphere where the air has similar properties throughout Front – a boundary between air masses with different temperatures Warm Front – a front where warm air moves in over a cold air mass Cold Front – a front where cold air moves in under a warm air mass
Thunderstorm – the most common severe storm, formed in cumulonimbus clouds Tornado – a violent, whirling wind that moves across the ground in a narrow path
Hurricane – a very large, swirling storm with very low pressure at the center Storm Surge– a great rise of the sea along a shore caused by low air pressure.
Weather – what the lower atmosphere is like at any given place and time. Climate – the average weather pattern of a region Humidity – the amount of water vapor in the air Relative Humidity – a comparison between how much water vapor is in the air and how much the air could hold at a given temperature if it were full