-PUNCTUATION- • End Marks • Commas • Semicolons • Colons • Italics • Quotation • Apostrophes • Hyphens • Dash • Stroke • Omission Marks • Brackets • Exercise
End Marks • 1. Periods (.) • ex : Pizza is my favorite food. • 2. Question marks (?) • ex : What time is it ? • 3. Exclamation (!) • ex : How clever you are !
B. Commas (,) 1. Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. ex : Jupiter is a large, strange planet. 2. Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for and yet when they join the parts of a compound sentence. ex : Betty offered to get the tickets, and I accepted gratefully. 3. Use commas to set of expressions that interrupt the sentence. ex : Our neighbor, Taylor Swift, is a good singer.
C. Semicolons (;) 1. Use a semicolons between the parts of a compound sentence if they are not joined by and, but, or and yet. ex : After school I went to play station; then I studied in my room for an hour. 2. A semicolons may be needed to separate the parts of a compound sentence if there are commas within the parts. ex : I wrote to Ann, Beth, and Meg; and Jean notified Terry and Sue.
D. Colons (:) 1. Use a colon before list of items, especially after expression like as follows and the following. ex : A search showed that Jack’s pocket contain the following: a knife, half an apple, a piece of gum, and a bottle of mineral water. 2. Use a colon between the hour and the minute when you write the time. ex : 8:30 A.M., 10:00 P.M. 3. Use a colon after a salutation of a business letter. ex : Dear sir:
E. Italics 1. Use italics for titles of books, periodicals, works of art, ships, and so on. ex : Harry Potter is one of my favorite novels.
F. Quotation Marks (“…”) 1. Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation – a person’s exact words. ex : “When the bell rings”, said the teacher, “leave the room quietly.” 2. A direct quotation begins with a capital letter. ex : Maria said, “ The frame isn’t strong enough.” 3. A period or a comma following a quotation should be place inside the closing quotation marks. ex : The man replied, “I’m ready.”
G. Apostrophes ( ‘ ) 1. to show owner ship or relationship. ex : the baby’s toy mice ‘s tracks cats’ basket 2. to show where letters have been omitted in a contraction ex : there is there’s is not isn’t will not won’t
H. Hyphens (-) 1. Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line. ex : In my opinion, this salad needs cu- cumber. 2. Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives. ex : There are twenty-nine days in February.
Dash ( -- ) • 1. to make a certain piece of information more stressful or more dramatic. • ex : Do not forget–once again do not forget–to post the letter today. • The kangaroo–the native animal of Australia–can jump extremely quickly.
J. Stroke (/) 1. may be used to show alternatives; it is often replaced by the word or. ex : To begin a formal letter, we may write Dear Sir/Madam if we do not know who the receiver is.
K. Omission Marks (…) 1. The three dots may imply that omission occurs there and then. ex : “Language … a set of rules … for communication," the definition read. 2. It is especially useful when we intend to quote certain parts or words that somebody else has said or written. ex : The most important part of speech is the verb …” Hornsby said. 3. The three dots may represent something irrelevant or unnecessary. ex : “… two kinds of complements, namely, the subject complement and the object complement,” they concluded.
L. Brackets ( ) 1. Can indicate something optional ex : Could you help me (to) remove the box ? 2. Be used to show an after-thought or comment ex : The book said that when she was nineteen (in fact she was twenty-one), she married the writer.
M. Exercise • Put the appropriate punctuation in the following sentences. • Can you name a play by William Shakespeare • The pilot boarded the plane checked her instruments and prepared for takeoff • Gendis books are stolen • My favorite sports are the following basketball fencing golf and diving • Are you surprised asked Mr. Sulistiyo • Congress may overrule a president’s veto by a two third majority • What a beautiful girl she is • by filling our bladders during the night Go to answer
Can you name a play by William Shakespeare ? • The pilot boarded the plane, checked her instruments, and prepared for takeoff. • Gendis books are stolen. • My favorite sports are the following: basketball, fencing golf, and diving. • “Are you surprised ?” asked Mr. Sulistiyo. • Congress may overrule a president’s veto by a two -third majority. • What a beautiful girl she is ! • (by filling our bladders during the night)
References Faulkner, Claude W. (1957). Writing Good Sentence. New York: Charles Scribner’s sons George, E. Wishon, and Julia, M. Burks. (1980). Let’s Write English. Writing College Workbook. Second Edition. Oshima, Aand Hogue A. (2006). Writing Academic English. Fourth edition. New York: Pearson Education Inc.