AS Level Anatomy and Physiology Muscles and Movement
3 types of muscle • Cardiac – where found? • Smooth – where found? • Skeletal– attaches to and moves the skeleton, it is the only type of muscle under our voluntary control The Heart The walls of hollow organs
Task • Using the textbook to help, can you label the diagram on worksheet 2.1. • You should also complete the table indicating the joints crossed by each muscle.
Some key terms • ORIGIN– point of attachment that remains fixed during muscle contraction. • INSERTION– point of attachment that moves towards the origin during muscle contraction.
Agonist / prime mover – muscle directly responsible for the movement at a joint. • Antagonist – muscle that has the opposite action to the agonist. • Fixator– muscle that stabilisesthe origin to allow the agonist to work efficiently.
Consider…. • Look at the table at the top of page 21 showing muscle function for flexion of the elbow. • How would the roles of the muscles change for extension of the elbow? The biceps brachiicontracting
Remember…. • Muscles cannot push, they can only pull. • Muscles are arranged in pairs, so whatever movement one muscle can do, it will have a partner to reverse it. • These are called antagonistic muscle pairs.
We will now identify the movements possible at each joint and the muscles involved in each movement….
Homework • Cut out a picture of a sports performer in action. • Identify the movements occurring at each of the major joints and state the joint name, joint type and the agonist and antagonist muscles for those movements.