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Muscles and Movement

Muscles and Movement

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Muscles and Movement

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  1. Muscles and Movement

  2. The Joint Best unit representation of how the body moves Where two or more bones contact Includes many components: BONES LIGAMENTS MUSCLES TENDONS NERVES

  3. The BONES • Bones are ORGANS • FUNCTION: framework for body • FUNCTION: Protection for…….. • FUNCTION: Act as levers • FUNCTION: Forms RBC • FUNCTION: Storage of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorous.

  4. BONES and TENDONS: A TEAM • Skeletal Muscles are attached to bones by TENDONS. • TENDONS are cords of dense connective tissue

  5. Arrangement of bones and design of joints These are the two factors that determine the type or range of motion possible in an organisms’ body….

  6. THE MUSCLES: Working in antagonistic pairs

  7. MAINTAINING CONTROL • Ligaments: • Tough band-like structures that strengthen the joint. • Contains different nerve endings… • Nerves • Works with ligaments to control positions of the joints • Prevents over-extension of joint and its parts.

  8. NUTRITION • Blood • Supplies joints with…. • Damaged blood vessels causes haemorrhage • Results in swelling

  9. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT

  10. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Cartilage: reduces friction and absorbs compression

  11. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Synovial Fluid: lubricates to…… and provides nutrients for cells

  12. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Joint Capsule: surrounds joint, encloses Synovial cavity, unites connecting bones

  13. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Tendons: Attach muscle to bone

  14. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Ligaments: Connects bone to bone

  15. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Biceps: contracts to bring out flexion (bending) of arm

  16. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Triceps: contracts to cause extension (straightening) of the arm

  17. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Humerus: act as lever that allows anchorage of muscles of elbow

  18. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Radius: act as lever for the biceps muscle

  19. JOINT TYPE: HINGE JOINT Ulna: act as lever for the _______________muscle

  20. JOINT TYPE: KNEE JOINT Just like the elbow, the knee joint: Can move freely (diarthrotic joints) Is also of the synovial type – why do you think this is so?

  21. JOINT TYPE: BALL-&-SOCKET JOINTS What do you think is the difference in the design of this joint?

  22. Case Study: KNEE SURGERY

  23. Case Study Review Question • What would be the result of a decrease in synovial fluid at a freely movable joint?