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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

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  1. UNIT 14 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

  2. INTRODUCTION • Social Psychology

  3. SOCIAL THINKING

  4. ATTRIBUTING BEHAVIOR TO PERSONS OR SITUATIONS • Attribution theory (Fritz Helder) • Dispositional vs. situational attribution • Fundamental attribution error • Self-serving bias

  5. DISPOSITIONAL (internal) or SITUATIONAL (external)? • They won only because the best athletes on the Central State’s teams were out with injuries – talk about good fortune. • External (situational) • They won because they have some of the best talent in the country. • Internal (dispositional) • Anybody could win this region; the competition is so far below average in comparison to the rest of the country. • External (situational) • They won because they put in a great deal of effort and practice. • Internal (dispositional)

  6. Fundamental Attribution Error – underestimating situational influences when evaluating the behavior of someone else. • He swerved into my lane because he is a jerk. • Actor-observer bias – attributing others’ behaviors to disposition but your own behaviors (even the same behaviors) to situational factors. • Example: He swerved into my lane because he is a jerk, but I swerved into the next lane because I was trying to avoid an animal in the road. • Self-serving bias – crediting your own successes to disposition, but attributing your own failures to situation. • Example: I won the game because I’m talented. I failed the test because the questions were unfair.

  7. ATTRIBUTING BEHAVIOR TO PERSONS OR SITUATIONS: THE EFFECTS OF ATTRIBUTION • Personal relationships • Political relationships • Job relationships

  8. ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS • Attitude • Central route persuasion • Peripheral route persuasion

  9. ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS: ACTIONS AFFECT ATTITUDES • The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon • “start small and build”

  10. EXAMPLES OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE • Foot-in-the-door phenomenon– the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one (examples, “please drive carefully”, Korean War, People’s Temple, training torturers, cheating)

  11. ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS:ACTIONS AFFECT ATTITUDES • Role-Playing Affects Attitudes • Role • Stanford prison study • Abu Ghraib

  12. Role playing - subjects who play a role often begin to “become” the role (Zimbardo’s prison study)

  13. ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS:ACTIONS AFFECT ATTITUDES • Cognitive Dissonance: Relief From Tension • Cognitive dissonance theory • “Attitudes follow behavior”

  14. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY • Cognitive dissonance theorystates that we are motivated to reduce this uncomfortable feeling by changing our beliefs to match our actions. • The dissonance (uncomfortable feeling) is less if we feel that we were forced to perform the action. Thus, the larger the pressure used to elicit the overt behavior, the smaller the tendency to change opinion.

  15. SOCIAL INFLUENCE

  16. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE • Chameleon effect

  17. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY • Conformity • Solomon Asch study

  18. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCESOLOMON ASCH STUDY

  19. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY • Conditions That Strengthen Conformity • One is made to feel incompetent or insecure • Group has at least three people • Group is unanimous • One admires the group’s status • One has made no prior commitment • Others in group observe one’s behavior • One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

  20. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:GROUP PRESSURE AND CONFORMITY • Reasons for Conforming • Normative social influence • Informational social influence

  21. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:OBEDIENCE • Obedience • Milgram’s studies on obedience • Procedure • Results • Ethics • Follow up studies

  22. MILGRAM OBEDIENCE STUDY “Teacher” is the subject in the experiment who administers the “shocks”. “Learner” is the confederate that received the shocks (when out of sight, the learner was a tape recording) “Authority” is the person administering the experiment; says “please go on”.

  23. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:OBEDIENCE

  24. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:OBEDIENCE

  25. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:OBEDIENCE

  26. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE:OBEDIENCE

  27. MILGRAM OBEDIENCE STUDY Factors that increase obedience: • Physical proximity of authority figure. • Perceived legitimacy of authority figure. • Distance or depersonalization of victim (learner). • Lack of a model for defiance.

  28. MILGRAM OBEDIENCE STUDY Factors that did NOT affect obedience: • Age • Profession • Gender • Mention by “learner” of a “slight heart condition”.

  29. CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE: LESSONS FROM THE CONFORMITY AND OBEDIENCE STUDIES • Ordinary people being corrupted by an evil situation

  30. GROUP INFLUENCE: INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS • Social Facilitation • Task difficulty • Home vs. Away • Crowding effects • Comedians and Actors • Practical lesson

  31. GROUP INFLUENCE: INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS • Social Loafing • Reasons why? • Less accountability • Tug of war • Clapping/Shouting experiments • View themselves as dispensable • Group projects in school

  32. GROUP INFLUENCE: INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS • Deindividuation • Less self conscious and less restrained when in a group situation • Ku Klux Klan experiment • Face paint/Masks

  33. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization

  34. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization

  35. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization

  36. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization

  37. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization

  38. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Group Polarization • Internet • terrorist organizations • “us vs. them”

  39. GROUP INFLUENCE:EFFECTS OF GROUP INTERACTION • Groupthink • Examining few alternatives • Selective gathering of information • Examining few alternatives • Pressure to conform within group or withhold criticism • Collective rationalization • Bay of Pigs • Challenger explosion • Iraq WMD • Marshall Plan • Cuban Missile Crisis

  40. CULTURAL INFLUENCE • Culture

  41. CULTURAL INFLUENCE: VARIATIONS ACROSS CULTURES • Norm • Personal space • Pace of life

  42. CULTURAL INFLUENCE: VARIATION OVER TIME • Changes over the generations

  43. THE POWER OF INDIVIDUALS • Social control (Power of the situation) vs personal control (Power of the individual) • Abu Ghraib • Communisim • Christianity • Rosa Parks • Inventions • Minority influence

  44. SOCIAL RELATIONS

  45. PREJUDICE: HOW PREJUDICED ARE PEOPLE? • Prejudice • Negative attitude • Stereotype • Beliefs, emotions, predispositions • Discrimination • Negative behavior

  46. PREJUDICE: HOW PREJUDICED ARE PEOPLE?

  47. PREJUDICE: HOW PREJUDICED ARE PEOPLE?

  48. PREJUDICE: HOW PREJUDICED ARE PEOPLE?

  49. PREJUDICE: HOW PREJUDICED ARE PEOPLE?