Unit 4 Enlightenment and Absolutism Lesson 1 The Rise of Nations (NATION)
The Rise of Nations (NATION) Learning Target Students can explain the rise of nationalism and absolutism in Europe
The Rise of Nations (NATION) Background • In Unit 2 we learned about feudalism. It was the political organization of the Middle Ages. Now you will learn about nationalism. As we observe nations developing, we will study many different kings and queens. Some thought that God gave them the right to rule. Others though that everything revolved around them. • In this Unit of study we will do more than learn about kings and queens. We will learn of a powerful armada, a beautiful city in St. Petersburg, Russia, and see a civil war in England. • The Renaissance, the Reformation, and new scientific discoveries brought great change to European societies. Each challenged the way people had lived since the Middle Ages. Another challenge came when Europe began to develop into nations
The Rise of Nations (NATION) N– Nationalism • In feudalism the people were loyal to different nobles • In nationalism the people are loyal to their country, or nation • Nationalism began with England and France soon followed • People in these nations shared the same “geographical boundaries”
The Rise of Nations (NATION) A– Absolute Power • All new nations had to answer one question: “what form of government shall we have?” • Different groups wanted power – city governments, the wealthy class, church officials • Thomas Hobbes wrote in the 1600s about absolutism • He stated a powerful monarch (queen or king) with unlimited power was the best answer to govern a nation
The Rise of Nations (NATION) T– Traditions • In these nations the people shared common languages, history, and traditions • A tradition is an idea, custom, or belief that is handed down from one person to the next • The nation became part of who a society and an individual in the nation was
The Rise of Nations (NATION) I– “I Am” • People began to identify with their particular nation – “I am English” • Unity and Identity are essential components to any strong society • These continue to be important forces today (i.e. Kentucky’s Motto)
The Rise of Nations (NATION) O– One Authority • Some monarchs ruled by “divine right” (meaning God has chosen them to rule) • This type of authority is without limit (disobedience is death)
The Rise of Nations (NATION) N– Need to be centralized: Power • Absolutism and “divine right” centralized religion and government • Religious leadership in the nation now fell to the king of the nation • The Protestant Reformation and edicts of religious tolerance reduced Papal authority
The Rise of Nations (NATION) Story • How powerful did these monarchs become? Take Philip III for example. Early in the 1600s, Philip III, the king of Spain, fell asleep before a blazing fire. Earlier the king had ordered that only one person could move his chair. But this one person was no longer in the room! Seeing that the fire was going to burn the king, his servants searched the castle. No one found the man who had permission to move the king’s chair, so the servants stood there and did nothing! They let the fire burn the king! If they had moved the chair, they would have disobeyed, or gone against, a royal order. That is absolute power!
The Rise of Nations (NATION) Questions • What type of government is ruled by a king or queen? • During the Age of Kings _________________, or loyalty to one’s country, developed. • Nationalism began in the country of _______________, and France soon followed. • During this period many monarchs had absolute or __________________, power. • The idea that kings are given the right to rule from God is known as ______________________ • What reduced the authority of the pope? • Philip III of _______________ was a king with absolute power.