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GUS: 0262 Fundamentals of GIS PowerPoint Presentation
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GUS: 0262 Fundamentals of GIS

GUS: 0262 Fundamentals of GIS

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GUS: 0262 Fundamentals of GIS

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  1. GUS: 0262Fundamentals of GIS Lecture Presentation 1: Introduction Jeremy Mennis Department of Geography and Urban Studies Temple University

  2. Overview of GIS • Two main types of data in GIS: • spatial data • helpful to conceptualize as maps • attribute data • helpful to conceptualize as tables (and metadata too…)

  3. Overview of GIS Spatial data are organized into layers

  4. Overview of GIS Spatial data layers are registered: • states • counties • roads • rivers • cities

  5. Overview of GIS State: New Jersey Pop: 7,730,188 Gov: C. Whitman Attribute data are associated with spatial features

  6. Overview of GIS State Name Population Governor Attribute data are stored in tables New Jersey 7,730,188 C. Whitman Pennsylvania 11,881,643 T. Ridge Etc…

  7. Overview of GIS Spatial data and attribute table are ‘linked’ together State Name Population Governor C. Whitman New Jersey 7,730,188 11,881,643 T. Ridge Pennsylvania Etc…

  8. Definitions of GIS • Geographic • pertaining to the surface of the earth • Information • collection of data, source of knowledge • System • model based on interrelated components

  9. Definitions of GIS Component-Based Definitions: • Hardware • Software • Data • People • Organizational/Institutional Context

  10. Definitions of GIS Function-Based Definitions: • Data input • Data management (storage/retrieval) • Data manipulation/analysis • Data output

  11. Definitions of GIS Perspectives on GIS: • The Cartographer’s Perspective • The Information Scientist’s Perspective • The Statistician/Modeler’s Perspective

  12. Related Technologies Spatial Information System (SIS) Geo-Information System (GIS) Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) Land Information System (LIS) Computer Aided design (CAD) Computer Aided mapping (CAM) Remote Sensing (image processing) (RS)

  13. A Very Brief History of GIS: One Geographer’s Perspective • 1950s in Geography • Quantitative revolution • Computer cartography • 1960s: individual development efforts • Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics (and 70s) • Early GISs: SYMAP, GRID, ODYSSEY • Landscape Architecture • Canada GIS

  14. A Very Brief History of GIS: One Geographer’s Perspective • 1970s: The federal government • USGS • US Census • 1980s and 1990s: A GIS industry • Commercial vendors, GIS on the desktop • Rapid adoption of GIS technologies • 2000 and beyond…. • Ubiquitous geospatial technologies • Integration with mainstream database technologies

  15. GIS Applications Who: • Government • Industry • Academics What: • Transportation • Hydrology • Geology • Demographics • Crime • Health • …