What is a group? • What is a group? Size? Purpose? Time? Number of members? Frequency? • Is a dyad a group? • What makes a group, groupier? (entitativity) • What do we need to keep in mind when we analyze group results? • How is it similar to/different from a social identity? • When are groups better than or worse than individuals? • When is diversity good/bad? Cohesion? • What do groups do for us? (why be in groups? What needs do they meet?)
Examples of group research • Group affiliation and Schachter study on social comparison theory • Attachment styles applied to groups • Sociometrics • What are the stages of groups? Do all groups go through these?
Power • French and Raven’s (1959) 5 types of power • Reward • Coercive • Legitimate • Referent • Expert • How does power trigger activity? What is good and bad about power?
Leadership • How do leaders emerge? • What makes a good leader? • Contingency vs. situational theory • Lewin et al. (1939) autocratic vs. democratic vs. laissez-faire leaders • How do women fair as leaders? • How does SIT explain leadership?
Social identity theory • How do SIT and SCT differ? • What motivates us to have social ids? • How is it a European theory? • What are your social IDs? • What affects what is salient? Can more than 1 be at a time? • How does SIT relate to system justification?
Areas of group research • How does SIT vs. other approaches explain these? • Group polarization? • Dislike of deviants • Conformity • Computer-mediated communication • Social loafing • Social facilitation (Zajonc’s cockroaches) • Shared information bias • Brainstorming
Types of social coordination • Behavior matching-mimicry • Interactional synchrony • Complementation • Automatic coordination • Emotions • Cognition • Goals • Assortation • Physiology
Routes to social coordination • Dyn systems (self-organization) • Perception to shared mental reps to action (auto) • Active motivations
Social coordination • Why do we do it? What evo basis would it have? What happens if people don’t mimic? • Cooperative courtship • Perspective taking and effects (self-control) • When are we more/less likely to socially coordinate?
Flow • Csikszentmihalyi • What is flow? • When do you feel flow? • What do Ackerman and Bargh add to the concept of flow?
Groupthink (Janis, 1952) • How do SIT vs. other theories explain? • Does it really occur very often? • Antecedents: strong group cohesion, (mixed) insulation from outside influences (historical) homogeneity of attitudes (both) a directive leader, (both) high stress (threats to group) poor decision-making procedures low situational member self-esteem
symptoms: • illusion of invulnerability • belief in the moral correctness of the group • stereotyped views of out-group • self-censorship • direct pressure on dissenters to conform • illusion of unanimity • mindguards (members protect leader from contrary views) • consequences: • incomplete survey of alts • failure to examine risks fo the favored alt • poor info search • failure to develop contingency plan • biased assessment of risks, costs, benefits, and moral implications • failure to reconsider later
Baron’s ubiquity approach • Only antecedents needed are: • Sense of social identity • Salient norms • Low situational self-efficacy • And broader than thought • Examples?
Cacioppo et al. 2009 • History and dyadic research • Framingham Heart Study • How/why does loneliness seem to spread? Induction vs. homophily vs. shared environment • Why are • Friends more influential than spouses or siblings • Females more influential than males • Why is it different than how happiness spreads?
MORE PAPER TOPICS • Next week read attraction part of 12 and all of 13 plus articles