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Introduction to Systems Change in Positive Behavior Support

Introduction to Systems Change in Positive Behavior Support

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Introduction to Systems Change in Positive Behavior Support

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  1. Introduction to Systems Change in Positive Behavior Support Rachel Freeman University of Kansas

  2. KIPBS Mission • Train professionals who will facilitate PBS plans • Create team of professionals that support each other • Provide access to free training materials on PBS • Facilitate state-wide and organization-wide systems change

  3. KIPBS Values • No one is considered an “expert” or “consultant” • We are all learning how to support children more effectively • Our job is to share our knowledge of PBS to build strong teams • When we finish facilitating PBS, we leave with team members continuing the PBS process

  4. Being Sensitive to Our Diversity • Ask questions • Don’t be afraid to ask about jargon • Instructors: Prompt full description of acronyms • Instructors: Be aware of the differences in perspectives and how this may relate to the way in which people respond • Person-centered planning is mandated in DD services but not in other services • Wraparound is the term preferred when working in mental health

  5. Examples of Professionals Participating in KIPBS • Education • Special education • Adult services • Case managers • Independent contractors • Child welfare • Mental health

  6. Organization-wide PBS Planning andSchool-wide Positive Behavior Support

  7. School-wide PBS and Universal Systems Change Strategies • Preventing a child or adult’s problem behavior means that everyone must change their behavior • Waiting until problem behaviors occur before acting increases the likelihood that crises will occur • Relying on one person to become an expert and solve complex problems is illogical • To create a prevention-focused environment, organizations must… • Include everyone in the problem-solving process • Create an ongoing problem-solving process • Consider how policies, training systems, management, and funds need to change • Use data for decision making

  8. Reasons for Organization-wide Planning • Organizations need to support their KIPBS Facilitators • Data on KIPBS Facilitator billing patterns show… • It is harder for KIPBS Facilitators when this type of position has not previously existed within an organization • Staff turnover makes it difficult for some organizations to maintain KIPBS Facilitators • Policies, procedures and other issues can make it difficult to facilitate PBS planning • KIPBS Facilitators are not usually directly involved in submission of billing • KIPBS Facilitators who are new to billing and reimbursement do not always know how to answer difficult billing questions • Staff submitting billing should receive instructions and have a chance to ask questions

  9. What We Are Learning • Our KIPBS Facilitators are leading our policy and procedures development efforts • The knowledge and wisdom of our billing organizations should be shared • Committing time for networking increases our community of practice by… • Improving our efforts to impact SRS policy • Collecting our wisdom and sharing it systematically with the state of Kansas • Increasing communication which will improve outcomes for children

  10. Positive Behavior Support • Valued outcomes by the child, family and team • Science of behavior and bio-medical issues (physiological issues, mental health issues) • Empirically validated procedures • Systems change ….in order to enhance quality of life and prevent problem behavior in the future

  11. Valued Outcomes • Well-developed PBS plans are a good fit for caregivers supporting a child or adult, given their… • Values • Skills • Resources • Interventions selected are considered culturally important • Plans build on child’s/adult’s strengths and increase/improve quality of life (vs. merely maintaining QOL)

  12. Science of Behavior and Biomedical Issues • Based on applied behavior analysis • Long history of effective interventions • Clear research documenting why individuals behave the way they do in different settings • Consideration of biomedical issues • Physiological issues underlying behavior • Mental health issues • Medications • Classical conditioning

  13. Empirically Valid Procedures • Strategies used have been proven effective in research literature • PBS is collaborative, assessment-based, emphasizes proactive, educative, and reinforcement-based strategies • Promotes environments in which positive behavior is more effective than problem behavior • Emphasizes using applied behavior analysis to…. • Teach new skills that will replace problem behavior • Reinforce positive social skills and decrease reinforcement for problem behavior • Redesign the environment in order to prevent the likelihood that problem behavior will occur

  14. Systems Change • Training one person to become an expert is not an effective approach • Teams supporting children will learn how to identify new strategies • Organizations can change policies, training systems, and management strategies to create environments that prevent problem behavior

  15. Exs. of Systems Change Activities • Offer trainings about PBS with a focus on prevention • Focus on person-centered approaches • Directly involve all staff/adults in creating new strategies • Identify the most import social/communication skills to teach • Create a systematic way to reinforce children/adults • Teach social and functional communication skills • Engage in ongoing data-based decision making • What types of behavioral incidents are most common? • How are proactive, prevention-focused interventions working? What intervention(s) are most effective? • What would be the most efficient intervention(s), given limited resources?

  16. Organization-wide Planning • In the past, a systems change project was: • Introduced at the end of the training year (Module 9) • Introduced at the celebration and included in class expectations at the beginning of the training year • Now….it is referenced & included throughout the training but field-based activities start at Module 9 • Organizations can choose to set up an organization-wide planning event after the training year is completed • Field-based activities in previous systems change projects have included: • Designing a plan for in-service training at student’s agency • Identifying colleagues to mentor using materials included in online KIPBS modules • Participating in organization-wide planning meetings on PBS • Conducting PBS marketing and awareness presentations

  17. New Organization-wide Planning Approach in Field-based Activities • Learn about the organization-wide PBS planning process throughout the training year • Assess extent to which PC-PBS processes and practices have been developed & implemented in your organization, as you learn more about PBS • Talk with your managers/supervisors about whether there is interest in doing organization-wide PBS planning with KIPBS staff helping to facilitate, after the class is completed

  18. Characteristics of Learning Organizations • Build on strengths • Work smarter, not harder • Focus on increasing communication • Use data for decision-making • Open to change • Do not assume that things: • “are already in place” • “we already provide that type of training”

  19. First Example of Systems Change: School-wide Positive Behavior Support Wait! I don’t work in a school setting! Why do I need to know about School-wide PBS (SWPBS)?

  20. Why it is important to learn about systems change in other organizations…. • Schools implementing PBS are interested in interagency collaboration • The systems change process is similar and organizations can learn from each other • Regional and community action planning is the key to effective service coordination

  21. CONTINUUM OF INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Children/Adults with High-Risk Behavior ~5% ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Children/Adults with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: Organization-wide Wide Systems for All Children/Adults, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Children/Adults

  22. School-wide Positive Behavior SupportSystems Change • The number of districts implementing school-wide PBS is growing fast • The best way to expand PBS is to create an infrastructure for moving forward • Each level of system has a planning team • Statewide planning team • District-wide planning team • School-wide planning team

  23. Districts and Schools Implementing SWPBS That We Know About: • El Dorado • Salina • Shawnee Mission • Topeka • Haysville • Parsons • Lincoln Elementary • Blue Valley and Olathe?

  24. PBS Systems Implementation Logic Visibility Political Support Funding Leadership Team Active Coordination Evaluation Training Coaching Local School Teams/Demonstrations

  25. Social Competence, Self Determination Academic Achievement, and Safety Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Information Supporting Staff Behavior SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)

  26. School Implementation Levels Example: Changing Contexts at all Levels State District School Classroom Student

  27. Levels of Community: Organization City Nation State Organization Neighborhood

  28. “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... ……….teach? ………punish?” John Herner, Counterpoint (1998, p.2)

  29. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success: Multi-tiered System of Supports (MTSS) 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  30. Strategies District Teams Are Now Using to Access Resources • Finding PBS Facilitators in their region • Sending school coaches/trainers to participate in KIPBS training program • Identifying and recruiting professionals in community • Invite mental health, child welfare, developmental disability or other professionals providing community support • Introduce KIPBS training opportunities and provide materials about the training and Medicaid reimbursement • Actively recruit professionals who will link with district team

  31. Levels of Community: Family City Nation State Family Neighborhood

  32. Using the School-wide PBS Model: The Triangle of Prevention Community-wide Behavior Support Systems School-wide Behavior Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions * Children with intense needs * Assessment-based * High Intensity 1-5% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions * Some children (at risk) * High efficiency 80-90% System-wide Interventions * All children * Preventive, proactive *Broad community focus Adapted from Sugai, 2002

  33. Planning Team Characteristics • Administrator(s) or manager(s) • Individual who can make decisions about use of funds • Individuals who manage training systems • Representatives of the individuals served (older children, family members, adults with disabilities) • Direct service staff members • Community members/volunteers

  34. Big Ideas • 3-5 year process • Organizational framework • Critical features the same across schools—yet uniquely individualized to culture of the school • Invest in “trainer of trainers” approach

  35. Elements of Organization-wide Planning • Establish team & get staff buy-in • Establish data-based decision-making system • Modify incident reporting process • Establish ways to teach important social and communication skills • Develop plans for teaching skills systematically • Create ways to recognize individuals • 8 positive statements for every corrective statement • Refine how to respond to problem behavior • Monitor, evaluate, and modify what staff do

  36. Identify Team Roles and Responsibilities • PBS Facilitator-facilitates meetings, reviews past meeting minutes, keeps group focused on meeting agenda • Record Keeper- writes down actions and activities • Timekeeper- before meeting, gets consensus on time to spend on each topic; monitors time for each topic; gives warnings when time is running out (e.g., “5 minutes left”) • Data Entry Person- trained to enter and access office referral data, brings data to meetings • Behavioral Expertise- a person who has received training in individual positive behavior support • Coordinator-lead person who coordinates organization-wide planning efforts

  37. Primary Prevention in Schools • Teach all children social skills • Work directly with all faculty to identify 3-5 expectations that will be systematically taught • Systematically reinforce positive behaviors observed • Create consistent responses to the occurrence of problem behavior • Establish a way to graph problem behaviors that is easy to use for school teams

  38. Primary Prevention: Business Strategies Toyota Service Department • We will treat you with respect • We will be responsible for ourselves & you • We will do our best • Safety is our primary goal

  39. Primary Prevention: Native Alaskan Community Values Example of Cup’ik Values • Help other people • Respect other people’s belongings • Respect the animals you catch for food • Remember what you are taught and told Saint Lawrence Island Yup’ik Values • Give service to others • Gather wisdom and knowledge Oleksa, M. (2005). Another culture/ Another world. Association of Alaska School Boards

  40. Primary Prevention: Native Alaskan Community Values Aleut Values • Take care of the land • Take care of the sea/ocean • Take care of the water • Be kind to other people Southeast Traditional Tribal Values • Hold each other up • Live in peace and harmony • Respect for nature and property Oleksa, M. (2005). Another culture/ Another world. Association of Alaska School Boards

  41. Primary Prevention:Supporting Adults with Disabilities • Adults identify the important social expectations within their homes • Emphasis is placed on prompting self determination (making meaningful decisions in life independently) • Prompting and teaching key social and communication skills

  42. Primary Prevention: Family Support Organizations • Provide training to families that will prevent problem behavior • Create opportunities for family members to meet together to share and brainstorm • Teach case managers how to identify children at risk for problem behaviors

  43. Secondary Prevention • Identify children and adults who need support early-- before challenging situations arise • One or more office referrals/incident reports create an automatic referral to behavior support team • Targeted small group interventions with individualized features (as needed) • Base interventions on functional behavioral assessment information • Provide additional targeted social skills teaching and positive feedback • Teach self-management strategies and increase supports to promote greater success • Provide multiple opportunities for high rates of academic success and/or social success across settings

  44. Tertiary Prevention • KIPBS Facilitators help teams problem solve when serious problem behaviors occur • Focus is on individualized, intensive function-based interventions & supports for children/youth engaging in serious problem behaviors • Create a team with the child as focus person • Person-centered or wraparound plan • Functional behavioral assessment • Positive behavior support plan • Interagency collaboration

  45. Organization-wide Planning Using PATH • Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is a way for diverse people who share a common need to align their… • Organization’s vision, purposes, and goals • Understanding of an organizational situation and its possibilities for hopeful action • Actions for change, mutual support, personal and team development, and learning • Completed PATH for elementary school follows…

  46. Gerald Adams Elementary School

  47. Organization-wide Planning Using PATH (Preview of Module 9 Activities)

  48. Opportunity for Organization-wide Planning • KIPBS professionals interested in starting systems change in a more formal manner can: • Learn about systems change in this class • Bring information to supervisors/ administrators • Ask for a KIPBS staff member to come visit after the training and facilitate a PATH