Life Span Development Middle Adulthood : Biosocial Development – Ch. 20 Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Life Span Development Middle Adulthood : Biosocial Development – Ch. 20 Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22

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Life Span Development Middle Adulthood : Biosocial Development – Ch. 20 Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22
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Life Span Development Middle Adulthood : Biosocial Development – Ch. 20 Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22

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  1. Life Span DevelopmentMiddle Adulthood: Biosocial Development – Ch. 20Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22 July 22, 2004 Class #13

  2. Middle Adulthood Biosocial development halfway between beginning and end of adulthood Variations in aging, influenced by genes income ethnicity life style

  3. Primary and Secondary Aging Primary aging—inevitable age-related changes Secondary aging—age-related changes that are the consequence of a person’s behavior or society’s failure to eliminate unhealthy conditions drinking smoking eating lack of exercise

  4. Looking Old Hair turns gray and thins Wrinkles appear and skin becomes dry Body size (people get shorter) and shape change (fat pockets settle on various parts of body) As people age, they can either accept or try to change their appearance

  5. The Senses Vision more likely to need corrective lenses Hearing some hear much better than others none hear perfectly hearing acuity also differs by sex, with men suffering greater loss

  6. Vital Body Systems Systematic declines make people more vulnerable to disease Flu shot recommended for middle-aged people who have had illness or medical condition that depletes organ reserve U.S. death rate during period of middle age has been cut in half

  7. Changes occur in the sexual reproductive system during middle age sexual responses slower reproduction less likely The Sexual-Reproductive System

  8. Occurs between ages 42 and 58 marked decrease in the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone primary factors in exact age are genes and chance factors before birth can also occur earlier because of health habits, particularly cigarette smoking and malnutrition Menopause

  9. Menopause • Perimenopause, or Climacteric • extends from 3 years before to 3 years after cessation of menstrual cycle • timing of periods is erratic • unpredictable ovulation, with several ova released sometimes, and at other times none • can result in “change of life” baby

  10. Menopause • Symptoms of the Climacteric • lower estrogen, osteoporosis, inability to reproduce • hot flushes, hot flashes, cold sweats (vasomotor instability) • mood changes for some women • psychic consequences extremely variable

  11. Hormonal Replacement Therapy HRT treatment to compensate for hormone reduction usually involves estrogen and progesterone

  12. Hormonal Replacement Therapy Women’s Health Initiative revealed long-term use (10 years or longer) of HRT increases risk of heart disease stroke breast cancer Osteoporosis

  13. Do men undergo menopause? Males decline in sperm production and motility, as well as lower testosterone levels No dramatic andropause though men can suffer from sudden, stress-related shifts in hormone levels the opposite can also occur: a rise in self-esteem Male Menopause?

  14. Male Menopause? • Even with the help of new drugs, like Viagra, most men will experience a decline in sexual desire and speed of intercourse as they age • Worry about aging bodies and life changes can magnify the sexual consequences of aging

  15. 4 Measures of Health death, disease, disability, and vitality Measuring Health

  16. Mortality and Morbidity Mortality—the number of deaths each year per 1,000 people in a given population Morbidity—the rate of diseases of all kinds, chronic and acute, in a given population

  17. Disability and Vitality Disability inability to perform activities that most others can more costly to society than either mortality or morbidity Vitality how healthy and energetic one is—physically, socially, and emotionally

  18. Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYS) years of full vitality useful in evaluation of the costs and benefits of various medical interventions for example, clean water, immunizations, and adequate nutrition all improve quality and length of life The Burden of Poor Health

  19. The Burden of Poor Health • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) • each year lost to premature death and each fraction of full quality of life due to disability reduces a person’s DALYS • Burden of disease—total reduction in vitality caused by a disease-induced disability in a given population. An example would be obesity of Americans.

  20. Health habits are relevant through all of life, but most crucial during 35-65 for reassessment and improvement many middleagers improve their health habits individual and environmental variations can affect who gets healthier—choices are crucial Health Habits Over The Years

  21. More than 1/4 of middle age nonsmokers are former smokers 1/4 currently smoke Quitting by age 65 is too late for some smokers death rates are about the same as they have been in the past Tobacco

  22. Tobacco • Smoking increases rate of most other serious diseases including • cancer of the bladder, kidney, mouth, stomach • heart disease • stroke • pneumonia • emphysema • All smoking diseases are dose- and duration-sensitive

  23. Tobacco • Secondhand smoke is dangerous • Worldwide tobacco use is expected to cause more deaths in 2020 than any other single condition • Smoking influenced by social norms

  24. Alcohol Adults who consume alcohol in moderation (nor more than two servings a day) tend to live longer than those who never drink helps reduce heart disease More alcohol consumption comes with notable risk

  25. Alcohol • Alcohol is a depressant yet we often feel lively after a couple of drinks… • It gives this feeling by slowing down the brain centers that control judgments and inhibitions

  26. Curious Effects • Memory • Sex • Hangover

  27. Alcoholism • Refers to one’s dependence on alcohol that seriously interferes with one’s life • Most common and costly form of drug abuse in U.S. • Aproximately 7% of adults 18 and over (10M people) • Traditionally more common (about 2 to 1) among males but recent research suggests that women are closing this gap

  28. Detrimental Effects • Life span of average alcoholic is 12 years shorter than the norm • Alcoholism ranks as the third leading cause of death in U.S. • More than one-third suffer at least one coexisting mental disorder • Organic impairment such as brain shrinkage occurs in a high proportion of alcoholics • About 20% attempt suicide • About 10% are successful

  29. Detrimental Effects • Associated with about half of deaths and major injuries suffered in motor vehicle accidents • Associated with about half of all murders • Associated with about one-third of all assaults and rapes • Associated with about one-third of all arrests • Alcohol-related accidents are the leading cause of death among college-aged individuals

  30. Symptoms of Alcohol Dependence • Use alcohol to boost self-confidence and to relax around others • Drink to forget their problems or to relieve stress • Often are the ones who want “one more” drink even when their friends have stopped drinking • After friends have left they drink with new friends…often close the bar…stay past last call • Get drunk without planning to • Have blackouts

  31. Symptoms of Alcohol Dependence • Lie about their drinking, try to hide it, sneak drinks at work or school • Drink in the morning to cure a hangover • May begin to have financial, work, or family problems • Complete loss of control

  32. Treatments • Rehab Centers • Treatment centers where the addict is supervised 24/7 • Supervised detoxification period to eliminate drugs from our bodies system • Alcoholics Anonymous • Self-help group • Little research because of members anonymity but indications are most don’t stick to it • Need to go to regular meetings for it to work • 90 meetings in first 90 days and then at least once per week after that • Antabuse • A type of aversion therapy where usually a pill is taken that will cause the patient to become sick whenever they drink alcohol

  33. Obesity and Overweight According to the World Health Organization,there is a worldwide epidemic of obesity and overweight Excess pounds cut down 3 years of life 65 percent of U.S. population between 35 and 65 years of age are overweight increased significantly for both sexes, in every decade in every cohort in every ethnic group

  34. Obesity and Overweight • In almost every nation, people weigh more than they did a few decades ago • Being overweight increases risk of every cause of disease, as well as of disability and death

  35. 3 factors make weight loss difficult environmental factors more easily alterable than evolutionary or genetic causes evolution homeostastis makes people who lose weight crave food to protect against starvation genes, which regulate metabolism fat accumulation Losing Weight

  36. Exercise Needed to attain and maintain a healthy weight Burns calories, decreases appetite, and increases metabolism Reduces ratio of body fat to body weight Enhances cognitive functioning

  37. Ethnic Variations and Health Women outlive men in every nation of the world Well educated, financially secure people live longer than people of same age, sex, and ethnicity with less education and money income and education lead to access to services People in cities live longer than do people in the countryside

  38. The Influence of Ethnicity on Health • Some immigrants are healthier than long-time residents of same age and ethnicity because • only hardiest individuals emigrate • health habits of immigrants are better • immigrants have optimistic outlook • immigrants have family communication and support

  39. Genetic risks Specific health care behaviors Social context factors including stress, prejudice, and poverty Three Causes of Ethnic Variations in Health

  40. Each individual has particular genetic risks to be aware of family history can make some risks apparent medical tests sometimes confirm genetic influences but genes act epigenetically—that is, genes and lifestyle interact Genetic Risks

  41. Doctors and Patients Health Care System in United States, works less well for minorities and for the poor minorities and the poor less likely to seek preventive care when they do get care, it is less than it might be

  42. The Social Context People in poorer nations experience higher rates of almost every disease, injury, and cause of death

  43. Psychosocial Development – Ch. 22 Personality Throughout Adulthood Personality is a major source of continuity provides coherence and identity

  44. The Big Five • Several researchers have found evidence for the existence of five basic dimensions of personality through factor analysis • 5 factors are independent of one another • Everyone can be placed along a continuum for all 5 factors/traits

  45. The Big Five • Extraversion • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Emotionality (also referred to as Neuroticism) • Intellect (also referred to as Openness)

  46. What researchers say… • From a review of literature the following are some of the important characteristics of the five factors: • The factors are dimensions, not types, so people vary continuously on them, with most people falling in between the extremes • The factors are stable over a 45-year period beginning in young adulthood • The factors and their specific facets appear heritable • The factors are considered universal • Knowing one's placement on the factors is useful for insight and improvement through therapy

  47. What Are These Five Factors? • Extraversion • Bold versus timid • Outgoing versus introverted • Talkative versus silent • Agreeableness • Friendliness versus indifference to others • A docile versus hostile nature • Compliance versus hostile noncompliance • Conscientiousness • Responsible versus irresponsible • Hardworking versus lazy • Cautious versus rash

  48. What Are These Five Factors? • Neuroticism • Adjustment versus anxiety • Level of Emotional stability • Dependence vs. independence • Openness • Reflection of an inquiring intellect • Flexibility versus conformity • Rebelliousness versus Subduedness

  49. Environment generally reinforces basic temperament significant changes can make people act differently death of a spouse, divorce, illness, career change, etc. Developmental Changes in Personality

  50. Gender Convergence Gender convergence—a tendency for men and women to become more similar as they move through middle age Gender crossover—the idea that each sex takes on the other sex’s roles and traits in later life.