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    2. Biological Beginnings The Evolutionary Perspective Genetic Foundations Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences Prenatal Development Birth

    3. The Evolutionary Perspective Natural selection and adaptive behavior Darwin and his observations All organisms must adapt in life Evolutionary psychology Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior Evolution explains human behavior

    4. Evolution and Life-Span Development Benefits of evolutionary selection decrease with age Natural selection failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptive characteristics As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase Alternative: bi-directional view

    6. Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology Remains just one theoretical approach Evolution does not dictate behavior Biology allows broad range of cultural possibilities

    7. The Genetic Process Beginning Life As A Single Cell DNA and the collaborative gene DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Chromosomes thread-like structures Genes units of hereditary information Human Genome Project

    8. Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

    9. The Genetic Process Genes and chromosomes Meiosis specialized form of cell division Fertilization egg and sperm fuse together Genetic variability in the population X and Y chromosomes and sex

    10. Genetic Principles Dominant and recessive genes Sex-linked genes X-linked inheritance for males and females Genetic imprinting Imprinted gene dominates Poly-genetically determined characteristics Many genes interact to influence a trait

    12. Genetic Principles Chromosome abnormalities Down syndrome Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities Klinefelter syndrome Fragile X syndrome Turner syndrome XYY syndrome

    13. Gene-Linked Abnormalities PKU: phenylketonuria Sickle-cell anemia Cystic fibrosis Diabetes Hemophilia Genetic disorders can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events

    14. Reaction Range Range of possible phenotypes for each genotype, suggesting importance of environments restrictiveness or richness Canalizationprocess by which characteristics take a narrow path or developmental course

    15. Chromosome and Gene-Linked Abnormalities Down Syndrome chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation Caused by extra (47th) chromosome Sex-linked Chromosome Abnormalities Caused by problems with sex chromosomes

    16. Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities

    17. Behavior Genetics Studies influence of heredity and environment on individual differences Studies use twins or adoptees Monozygotic and dizygotic twins Adoption study: examine behavior and psychological characteristics

    18. Heredity-Environment Correlations In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the familys influence Shared environments are analyzed Commonalities between children attributed to heredity-environment interaction

    19. The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views

    20. The Course of Prenatal Development Germinal period: 2 weeks after conception Embryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception Three layers form Umbilical cord connect to placenta Fetal period From 2 months after conception to birth Trimesters of pregnancy

    22. Prenatal Diagnostic Tests Amniocentesis: samples amniotic fluid Ultrasound sonography Chorionic villi sampling: small sample of placenta taken Maternal blood test

    23. Teratogens and the Prenatal Environment Teratogen: agent causing birth defects Severity of damage affected by Dose Genetic susceptibility Time of exposure Effects of prescription and nonprescription drugs

    25. Teratogens and the prenatal environment Psychoactive drugs Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Nicotines link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight Effect of fathers smoking Cocaine, marijuana, and heroin Environmental hazards and pollutants

    26. Teratogens and the prenatal environment Infectious diseases (AIDS and STDs) Incompatible blood types of parents Rh-positive and Rh-negative Other prenatal factors Nutrition, prenatal education and care Age of parents Maternal emotional states and stress

    27. The Process of Birth Stages of birth: occurs in three stages Uterine contractions Babys head moves through birth canal Afterbirth when placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled Baby must withstand stress of birth

    28. Strategies for Childbirth Deciding what setting, who attends, and what technique will be used Home delivery, birthing center, or hospital? 99% of all U.S. births occur in hospitals Home births more common outside U.S. Role of midwife, nurse, and physician

    29. Methods of Delivery Medication with analgesics (epidural block, oxytocics, etc.) Possible effects of drugs on fetus Natural childbirth Prepared childbirth and the Lamaze method Cesarean sections for breech babies, other risks and benefits

    30. Neonatal Health and Responsiveness Low birth weight infants in U.S. and world Weigh less than 5.5 lbs Very low birth weight: less than 3 lbs Preterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births) Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they should

    31. Neonatal Health and Responsiveness Consequences of low birth weight Low brain weight and risk of brain injury Lung and liver disease ADHD and learning problems/disabilities Breathing problems and asthma Lower achievement levels Some effects can be reversed

    32. Assessing the Newborn Apgar Scale: heart, reflexes, and color Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) A sensitive index of neurological competence Four categories in global terms Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)

    34. Tiffany Fields Research on Massage Therapy Massage therapy led to 47% greater weight gain for preterm infants Also demonstrated benefits of massage for Labor pain Asthma ADHD Arthritis Autistic children

    36. Bonding Needs to occur shortly after birth Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital Rooming-in arrangements offered Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development

    37. The End