LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

play fullscreen
1 / 42
Download Presentation
LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT
186 Views
marsha
Download Presentation

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

    1. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

    2. Intelligence The Concept of Intelligence Controversies and Group Comparisons The Development of Intelligence The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

    3. What Is Intelligence? Similar to thinking and memory skills Cannot be directly measured Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences Individual differences are stable, consistent

    4. Intelligence Tests Individual Tests The Binet Tests Mental age (MA) individuals level of mental development relative to others Chronological age (CA) age from birth Intelligence quotient (IQ) individuals MA divided CA, multiplied by 100 Normal distribution symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean

    5. The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores

    6. The Wechsler Scales WAIS-IV for adults WISC-IV for children Provides overall IQ Measures verbal IQ Six verbal subscales Measures performance IQ Five performance subscales

    7. Group Tests Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are individually administered Requires extensive information outside testing situation; assess individual behavior More convenient and economical than individual tests, but examiner cannot Establish rapport Determine level of anxiety

    8. The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests Intelligence tests: Tools dependant upon user skill and knowledge Substantially correlated with school performance Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies Measures only current performance Other factors also affect success

    9. Theories of Multiple Intelligences Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities Spearmans two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors Thurstones multiple-factor theory; seven abilities Gardners theory of multiple intelligences; certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage

    10. Theories of Multiple Intelligences

    11. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom Allow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent Attention given to understanding oneself and others

    12. Sternbergs Triarchic Theory Three main types of intelligence Analytic Creative Practical Assessing Sternberg Triarchic Ability Theory (STAT) Effective in predicting college GPA More research needed

    13. Triarchic Theory in the Classroom Goal is to discover and explore domains of natural curiosity and talent Exposure to stimulating materials every day Concerns about Traditional Classroom Analytic ability favored in conventional schools Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers Practical students may do better outside school

    14. Emotional Intelligence Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively Four aspects Perceiving and expressing emotions Understanding emotions Facilitating thought and affect of moods Managing emotions

    15. Comparing the Intelligences

    16. Do People Have One or Many Intelligences? Many argue research base to support theories not yet developed Some say Gardners classification seems arbitrary Some experts who argue for general intelligence believe individuals also have specific intellectual abilities

    17. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Controversies and Group Comparisons Genetic Influences Jensen argued heredity; used twin studies Adoption studies: educational levels of biological parents better predictor of IQ Heritability: fraction of variance in IQ in a population that is attributed to genetics Influence increases in aging

    18. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Environmental Influences Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex Socioeconomic status Parent communication Schooling Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology? Flynn effect

    19. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Emphasis on prevention, not remediation High quality intervention improves IQ and school achievement Effects strongest for poor with low educated parents Positive benefits continue into adolescence Educates parents to be more sensitive Abecedarian Intervention program

    20. Group Comparisons and Issues Cross-cultural comparisons problematic Different cultures define intelligence differently Practical and academic intelligence can develop independently Predictive validity affected by ethnicity Cultural bias in testing Culture-fair tests: intelligence tests intended not to be culturally biased

    21. Ethnic Comparisons The Bell Curve African American students average lower intelligence test scores than White students Individual scores vary considerably SES may have more effect than ethnicity; gap narrows in college

    22. Ethnic and Gender Comparisons Stereotype threat fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing Some studies confirm existence Others believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gap Gender differences in intellectual abilities Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores; controversy over gender differences

    23. Tests of Infant Intelligence Gesell Distinguishes normal from abnormal infants Four categories of behavior Motor Language Adaptive Personal-social Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ)

    24. Tests of Infant Intelligence Bayley Scales of Infant Development Three components Mental scale Motor scale Infant behavior profile Diagnoses developmental delays Overall scores do not correlate highly with IQ scores obtained later in childhood

    25. Tests of Infant Intelligence Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence Increasingly being used Focuses on infants ability to process information Obtains similar results cross-culturally Correlated with measures of intelligence in older children

    26. Stability and Change in Intelligence through Adolescence Group scores remain stable Strong relation between IQ scores obtained at ages 6, 8, and 9 and IQ scores obtained at 10 Correlation between IQ in preadolescent years and 18 still statistically significant Individual scores vary more Children are adaptive IQ scores fluctuate dramatically in childhood

    27. Intelligence in Adulthood Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized intelligence Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age Fluid intelligence Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing

    28. Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span

    29. The Seattle Longitudinal Study Spatial orientation Inductive reasoning Perceptual speed

    30. Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities

    31. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change

    32. Cognitive Mechanics Hardware of the mind Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, memory, organizing, and discrimination Strong influence of biology and heredity Declines with age

    33. Cognitive Pragmatics Culture-based software of the mind Skills include Reading and writing skills Language comprehension Educational qualifications Professional skills Knowledge about self and life skills Can improve with aging

    34. Wisdom Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting excellent judgment about important matters High levels of wisdom are rare Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood Factors other than age are critical Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom

    35. Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence Difficulty adapting to everyday life Onset of characteristics by age 18 Range of impairments vary Some causes include Organic retardation Cultural-familial retardation

    36. Classification of Mental Retardation based on IQ

    37. Giftedness Above-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet Precocity March to their own drummer Passion to master Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true

    38. Creative Thinking

    39. Steps in the Creative Process Preparation Incubation Insight Evaluation Elaboration Not all creative people follow in linear sequence

    40. Characteristics of Creative Thinkers Flexibility and playful thinking Brainstorming Inner motivation Willingness to risk Objective evaluation of work

    41. Changes in Adulthood Individuals most creative products were generated in their thirties 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining Age of decline varies by domain

    42. Living a More Creative Life Try to be surprised by something every day Try to surprise at least one person every day Write down the surprises of each day Follow sparked interests Wake up in the morning with a specific goal Take charge of your schedule Spend time in stimulating settings

    43. The End