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The British Isles

The British Isles

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The British Isles

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  1. Scotland The British Isles Northern Ireland Ireland England Wales Europe

  2. The British Isles • They are made up of two independent countries: The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain • The United Kingdom includes Four Political Regions: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland • Also divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain • Lowland Britain has a complex cultural geography • Also home of Stonehenge

  3. Successive Settlement Groups • Celts • Romans • Angles and Saxons • Vikings • 1066 William of Normandy conquered England • Each of these left an imprint on lowland Britain • This is called sequent occupance, where each group created a distinctive cultural landscape

  4. The British Empire • In the 1600s & 1700s, British explorers and settlers founded colonies around the world. • During the 1800s, more than 1/4th of the world’s land was ruled by British Empire. • The empire spread the English language, Christianity, and British law, and sports around the globe.

  5. Colonies of the US were part of the British Empire, declared independent in 1776 • Most former colonies became members of the Commonwealth of Nations • Ireland did not gain independence from the British until 1921. • A famine almost destroyed the population of Ireland by destroying the potato crop. This also caused the people of Ireland to migrate to the United States.

  6. Culture of the British Isles • Sports: soccer, rugby, and cricket • Language: English • Government: • Great Britain has a constitutional monarchy that is, a king or queen, is the head of the state, but a parliament led by a prime minister serves as the lawmaking branch of government • Ireland is a republic and the president is the head of the state.

  7. Religion: • Vast majority of people in Ireland are Roman Catholic • Protestants make up a majority of the population in Northern Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom • Cities: • Dublin is Ireland’s capital (most populous city) • London is the largest city, cultural center, world financial center, and the capital of United Kingdom • Both are great for tourism… amazing site seeing!!!

  8. Economy • The Industrial Revolution began in Britain • Early industries included iron and steel, shipbuilding, and textiles • Through 1700s and 1800s Britain dominated global trade. By 1900, Britain lost their dominance to foreign trade • After WWII, the United Kingdom nationalized many industries…. Industries are owned and operated by the government • Today, Britain has returned most industry to private ownership and the British economy is strong • Ireland’s economy is traditionally based on farming but today has become one of the Europe’s most developing economies

  9. France

  10. France • One of Europe’s largest and most influential countries • Most of the people of France speak French along with some cultural and regional dialect • 90% of the population is Roman Catholic. • France has had a long and friendly relationship with the United States • Some are worried about how the American culture is spreading to France • They want to maintain a strong French culture

  11. Paris is the capital and primate city (one that ranks first and dominates a country in terms of population and economy) of France • About 11 million people live in Paris • Paris is France’s center for banking, business, communications, education, government, and transportation. • The Eiffel Tower was once, for 41 years, the tallest structure in the world.

  12. Economy • The economy is highly diversified and developed. • France is the center for fashion, tourism, and culture. • Farming is also a major part of the economy. • France is second to the US in agricultural exports

  13. The Benelux Countries • Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg • All three have been fought over by foreign powers • After WWII, the Benelux countries established a political and economic union, this was a seed for the creation of the European Union • An organization of countries interested in increasing economic and political cooperation between its members.

  14. Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands and northern Belgium (here it is called Flemish) • About 40% speak French • Luxembourg has three official languages: German, French, and Luxembourgian (related to German and Dutch)

  15. Scandinavia • Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland • Known in the past for fierce Viking sailors but today is known for its high standards of living • Almost all Scandinavians are Protestant Lutheran • Most Scandinavians live in the southern part (warmer climates) • Far north it becomes uninhabitable (too cold to live)