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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Survey of Astronomy Our Living Earth

  2. Chapter 6 Our Living Earth Survey of Astronomy

  3. Chapter 6 The interior of the Earth has been determined by studying the transmittal and reflection of Seismic Waves within the Earth. Survey of Astronomy

  4. Chapter 6 Seismic waves are sound waves generated by earthquakes. They are compression waves and sinesoidal waves. They reflect from and transmit through layer interfaces with the Earth. Survey of Astronomy

  5. Chapter 6 The Earth has a solid iron inner core, a liquid iron outer core, a liquid rocky mantle and a solid rocky crust Survey of Astronomy

  6. Chapter 6 Can use the pattern of reflections made during earthquakes to deduce interior structure of Earth Survey of Astronomy

  7. Chapter 6 Survey of Astronomy

  8. Chapter 6 The crust of the Earth is divided into several plates that move with respect to each other. The movement is driven by convection currents in the mantle. Plate movement results in earthquakes and volcanism. Survey of Astronomy

  9. Chapter 6 Interactions between the plates are: transform, sliding against each other; divergence, separating; convergence, coming together. Survey of Astronomy

  10. Chapter 6 When plates slide against each other cracks (faults) occur and earthquakes happen. Survey of Astronomy

  11. Chapter 6 The twisting Pacific plate has produced many earthquake zones and many active volcanoes. Survey of Astronomy

  12. Chapter 6 At divergent boundaries new crust is made. Survey of Astronomy

  13. Chapter 6 At convergent boundaries crust is lost by subduction (sliding under) and crumpling (mountain building) Survey of Astronomy

  14. Chapter 6 The Earth’s magnetic field appears to be generated by electric currents circulating the liquid iron core. Survey of Astronomy

  15. Chapter 6 The Magnetic Field deflects the Solar Wind around the Earth much like a stone in a stream deflects water. Charged particles that penetrate the boundary are trapped in the Van Allen Belts Survey of Astronomy

  16. Chapter 6 The trapped hot charged particles in the Van Allan belts are shunted toward the magnetic poles where they interact with the air molecules. The particles are cooled by the air which glows as auroras. Survey of Astronomy

  17. Chapter 6 The Earth’s Biosphere, Oceans and Atmosphere, come from hydrogen rich gasses trapped inside the Earth during creation. By far the most abundant of the trapped gasses are methane, ammonia, and water. The Earth is the only planet where conditions are right for liquid water to exist on the surface. Survey of Astronomy

  18. Chapter 6 Earth’s Atmosphere Free H Trapped gasses Outgassing Water Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Plant Life Oxygen CH4 NH3 OH2 CO2 N2 O2 Survey of Astronomy Water Plant Life

  19. Chapter 6 The Atmosphere • Troposphere is where convection takes place – responsible for weather • The blue curve shows the temperature at each altitude Survey of Astronomy

  20. Chapter 6 Convection depends on warming of ground by the Sun Survey of Astronomy

  21. Chapter 6 Ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation, and is good conductor Reflects radio waves in the AM range, but is transparent to FM and TV Ozone layer is between ionosphere and mesosphere; absorbs ultraviolet radiation Survey of Astronomy

  22. Chapter 6 The Human Element More Humans, Industrial Revo-lution Global Warming (?) Survey of Astronomy

  23. Chapter 6 End Chapter 6 Survey of Astronomy