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Chapter 6 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

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  1. Chapter 6 Power and the National State: The Traditional Structure

  2. State • Units of government that exercise legal authority over a specific territory and the people in it and that recognize no legitimate higher authority.

  3. State • States share all or most of the following 6 characteristics: • Sovereignty • Territory • Population • Diplomatic recognition • Internal Organization • Domestic support

  4. Sovereignty • Most important characteristic of state • Means states have supreme legal authority • Sovereignty different from independence

  5. Territory • Physical boundaries • Disputes over borders can and do exist (example: Israel)

  6. Population • People • Range from 921 inhabitants (Vatican City) to 1.3 billion (China) • With growth of NGOs and IGOs, issue of who to count in populations

  7. Diplomatic Recognition • Recognition of state by existing states • A lack of recognition even by a majority does not mean state is not a state • Only states can fully participate in the international system • Economic issues

  8. Internal Organization • States must have some level of political and economic structure. • Failed states and conflict may not end state status (examples: Sierra Leone, Afghanistan) • Transitional governments

  9. Domestic Support • Social Contract • People give legitimacy

  10. Purposes of the State • Individual Betterment • Security • Basic Rights (see John Locke and Thomas Hobbes) • Domestic Tranquility

  11. National Power • Power is hard to define • Power is key determinant in international system Power is goal • Balance of Power=current distribution of power

  12. Power • Asset as well as goal • Types of Power • Hard Power: rests on negative incentives (threats) and on positive incentives (inducements) • Soft Power: ability to persuade others to follow by leading a good example

  13. Measuring Power • Difficult b/c of intangibles • Size issue • Attempts to measure continue

  14. Characteristics of Power • Dynamics—power in flux, cycles, balance of power, internal conditions • Absolute vs. Relative power • Power as Capacity and Will • Objective and Subjective • Situational

  15. Political Organizations:Theories of Governance Authoritarian: A type of restrictive government where people are under the rule of an individual, such as a dictator or king, or a group, such as a party or military junta Theocracy: Rules by spiritual leaders (authoritarian)

  16. Theories of Governance • Monarchism: One form of secular authoritarianism, although the theory that God has granted kings divine to govern touches upon idea of theocracy

  17. Theories of Governance • Communism: Ideology originated in the works of Friedrich Engels and Marx that is essentially an economic theory. As such, it is the idea that an oppressed proletariat class of workers would eventually revolt against the bourgeoisie; State owns means of production (authoritarian)

  18. Theories of Governance • Fascism: Ideology that advocates extreme nationalism, with a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity (authoritarian)

  19. Theories of Governance • Democracy: concept of modern liberalism—basic concept describes the ideology of a body governed by and for the people • Democratic Peace Theory: Spread of Democracy = peace

  20. National Diplomacy • Direct Diplomatic Application of Power: includes the use of economic sanction or inducements as well as threatening/offering them. • Indirect Diplomatic Application of Power: more subtle; involves a communications process of a state skillfully advancing its policy preferences, arguing the merits of its position.

  21. National Diplomacy • Examples: • US-North Korea Confrontation over nuclear weapons program • China-Taiwan tensions • Afghanistan and the United States • US and Iraq

  22. Diplomacy • Ever-evolving process • Expansion of geographic scope • Bilateral and multilateral diplomacy (number of countries involved) • Leader-to-Leader diplomacy (example: summits) • Democratized diplomacy (legislatures, interest groups, public opinion involved)

  23. Newer Types of Diplomacy • Parliamentary Diplomacy: includes debate and voting in IGOs as a supplement to negotiation and compromise. • Open diplomacy: process widely reported and contents of international agreements widely documented.

  24. Diplomacy • Public Diplomacy: process of creating an image that enhances a country’s ability to achieve diplomatic success by increasing its soft power. (get support of the people if not the govt)

  25. Conduct of Diplomacy Types of Diplomacy Coercion Rewards Precise Vague Linking Issues or not Maximizing or minimizing issues at hand • Communications process • Direct Negotiations • Indirect Negotiations • High – Level • Low – Level • By Word • By Deed

  26. Role of States • Examine trends in IGOs and NGOs • How will world look in 100 years? 50? 25? • National interests