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Chapter 14 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 14 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Chapter 14 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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  1. Chapter 14Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPS 1000 Fitness for Living

  2. __________ Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Can be cured with antibiotics ________ Herpes Genital warts Hepatitis HIV Cannot be cured with current therapies The Major STDs

  3. HIV/AIDS • What is it? – a chronic disease that progressively damages the body’s immune system 1. Person is unable to resist a variety of infections and disorders 2. Upon infection, the HIV virus multiplies, attacks, and destroys white blood cells • Asymptomatic period – may range from ___ to ___ years • The virus may live in the body ___ years or longer before symptoms emerge • Without treatment – progresses to AIDS within ___ years

  4. Transmitting the Virus • Only lives in cells and body fluids • Transmitted through… 1. Blood 2. Blood products 3. Semen 4. Vaginal & cervical secretions 5. Breast milk

  5. Transmitting the Virus • It cannot live in… 1. 2. 3. On objects or surfaces a. Toilets, eating utensils • 3 main routes of HIV transmission 1. Sexual contact 2. Direct exposure to infected blood 3. Mother to child (during pregnancy or breastfeeding)

  6. Transmitting the Virus • Oral sex 1. ____ risk than anal or vaginal 2. Risk increases if a person… a. Has ____ oral hygiene b. Has oral _____ c. _______ or ______ just before or after oral sex

  7. Transmitting the Virus • Other forms of transmission and their risk 1. a. trace amounts b. but do not have enough to infect someone 2. a. carries some risk if contacted 3. a. believed to not carry any risk 4. a. absolutely no evidence that it can be spread this way

  8. Current Modes of HIV Transmission in the U.S.

  9. Proportion of AIDS Cases by Race/Ethnicity in the U.S., 1985–2002

  10. Symptoms • Acute 1. Flu like symptoms 2. Rashes 3. Diarrhea 4. Swollen lymph nodes • Chronic 1. Susceptible to infections 2. Most common seen – pneumonia 3. Kaposi’s sarcoma – cancer in men 4. Vaginal yeast infections

  11. HIV & AIDS Treatment • HIV infection and AIDS have no known cure • Medications are available that • Delay the progress of infection and allow HIV-infected patients to live longer • May keep some people from developing AIDS • The sooner the treatment is initiated, the better the prognosis for a longer life • Developing a vaccine to prevent HIV infection or AIDS seems highly unlikely within the next few years

  12. Genital Warts • Symptoms 1. Dry, painless growths 2. Rough in texture 3. Gray or pink in color 4. Can grow together to form a cauliflower like mass • Men 1. Appear on the penis 2. Travel to the urethra 3. Can cause irritation and bleeding 4. Painful urination & urethral discharge

  13. Genital Warts • Women 1. May appear on the labia or vulva 2. Can occur on the ______ a. Possibly ___ symptoms or awareness of the problem b. Can lead to cancer if untreated • Can also occur in the mouth, throat, rectum, or around the anus in men and women • Incubation period 1. ___ month to ___ years 2. Can transmit it to others and have no symptoms

  14. Genital Warts • Warts appear anywhere from 1 to 8 months after exposure • Warts can be found • On the penis and around the vulva and vagina • In the mouth, throat, rectum, the cervix, or around the anus • One million new cases of genital warts are diagnosed yearly in the U.S. • In some cities, nearly half of all sexually active teenagers have genital warts

  15. Genital Warts • Diagnosis 1. Appearance 2. Pap tests • Treatment 1. Cryosurgery 2. Electrocautery (burning) 3. Laser surgery 4. Medication a. Imiquimod – immune system enhancer b. Podofilox – destroys warts • Patients may have to be treated more than once, because genital warts can recur

  16. Genital Herpes • The two most common forms of HSV are Types I and II • Type I is most commonly known to cause ____ herpes • Cold sores or fever blisters appear on the lips and mouth • About 135 million people over the age of 12 carry HSV Type I • HSV Type II is better known as the virus that causes ______ herpes • About 45 million people over 12 are infected with HSV Type II • More than 1 million new cases are diagnosed each year • Both HSV Type I and II can cause oral and genital sores

  17. Transmission of Herpes • HSV-2 a. Almost always sexually b. Can be whether have symptoms or not • HSV is a highly contagious virus • Victims are most contagious during an _______ • HSV spreads by contact with an active _______ • HSV can also be spread through virus-containing __________ from the vagina or penis

  18. Genital Herpes • Symptoms 1. Most infected people have none 2. Those who do will have them in 2-20 days 3. First episode a. Flulike symptoms (mild fever, swollen glands, and headaches) b. Genital lesions – usually heal within 3 weeks 4. Outbreaks can occur at anytime 5. Triggered by stress, illness, fatigue, sun exposure, etc.

  19. Genital Herpes Treatment 1. ___ cure 2. Carry it for ____ 3. Antiviral drugs a. Shorten severity and duration

  20. Hepatitis • Means – inflammation of the ______ • 3 main types – A,B,C • Transmission 1. Body fluids 2. Found in _____ more so than HIV • Symptoms 1. Many _____ develop symptoms 2. Can transmit it and be asymptomatic 3. Some develop – cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer

  21. Hepatitis • Diagnosis 1. Blood test • Treatment 1. No cure 2. Antiviral drugs for chronic HBV 3. HBV immunoglobulin can provide protection against the virus

  22. Chlamydia • Can occur in men and women • Women carry the greater burden because of possible complications 1. • Symptoms 1. Most experience none increasing risk of transmission 2. Men a. Painful urination, water discharge, pain around the testicles

  23. Chlamydia 3. Women a. vaginal discharge, burning urination, pain or bleeding with sex, lower abdominal pain • Diagnosis 1. Urine, urethral or cervical fluid • Treatment 1. Antibiotics

  24. Gonorrhea • Symptoms males 1. Urethritis – thick yellowish white or green discharge 2. Urethral opening swelling 3. Lymph glands in groin swell 4. 1/3 have little or none

  25. Gonorrhea • Symptoms females 1. Most have none • Up to ___% of infected women don’t experience symptoms until the infection has become fairly serious • At this stage, women develop fever, severe abdominal pain, and pelvic inflammatory disease 2. Urinary pain 3. Vaginal discharge 4. Severe menstrual cramps • Can also occur in the throat or rectum • Untreated gonorrhea can produce • Infertility, widespread bacterial infection, heart damage, arthritis • Blindness in children born to infected women

  26. Gonorrhea • Treatment 1. Expensive antibiotics 2. Penicillin and tetracycline not recommended because of resistance

  27. Syphilis • Caused by a cork screw shaped bacterium • Requires warmth and moisture to survive • Dies very quickly outside the body • Passes through any break or opening in the skin or mucous membranes • 3 weeks after infection, a painless sore appears where the bacteria entered the body • The sore disappears on its own in a few weeks • If untreated, additional sores may appear within 6 months of initial outbreak • A latent stage during which victim is not contagious may last up to ___ years (victims think they are ____)

  28. Transmission of Syphilis 1. Kissing 2. Vaginal or anal intercourse 3. Oral-genital contact

  29. Syphilis • Passes through several stages • Primary syphilis 1. Chancres – ulcers in various locations • Secondary syphilis – 1/3 progress to this if untreated 1. Skin rash – highly contagious 2. Can go away after several years if untreated • Tertiary syphilis – 1/3 advance to this 1. Can damage many organs 2. Dementia 3. Cardiovascular damage, blindness, and death 4. Some people may develop paralysis, crippling, blindness, heart disease, brain damage, insanity

  30. Primary

  31. Primary

  32. Secondary Rash

  33. Syphilis • Treatment 1. All stages can be treated with antibiotics 2. Tertiary syphilis may be __________

  34. PID • Major complication of 10-40% of women with gonorrhea or chlamydia that have not received treatment • Occurs when… 1. Initial infection travels upward into the uterus, ovaries, etc. • Even if it is treated 25% of women 1. Susceptibility to infection 2. Ectopic pregnancy 3. Infertility 4. Chronic pelvic pain

  35. PID • Symptoms 1. Can be ____ – especially if caused by chlamydia 2. Ab. Pain, fever, chills, nausea, and vomitting 3. Abnormal bleeding • Diagnosis 1. Basis of symptoms, exam, ultrasound, lab tests • Treatment 1. Antibiotics

  36. Reducing the Risk for STDs • Limit the number of sexual partners you have • If sexually promiscuous, consider periodic physical check-ups • ______ immediately following sexual intercourse • Although not entirely reliable, it may help flush bacteria and viruses from the urinary tract • Thoroughly _____ immediately after sexual activity • Although not a guarantee, it can prevent you from spreading germs on your fingers and may wash away bacteria and viruses that have not yet entered the body