The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being expressed by the verb. The verb Verb Tense
In chronological order, the verb tenses are: • Past Perfect • Past • Present Perfect • Present • Future Perfect • Future The Six verb tenses
Each tense has an additional form called the progressive form, which expresses continuing action or state of being. The progressive form consists of the appropriate tense of be plus the present participle of a verb. Nota bene: The progressive form is not a separate tense. It is simply another form of each of the six tenses. Progressive form
Form used by past and present tense • Shows emphasis • Can also be used to form questions and negative statements. This usage does not place special emphasis on the verb. • For present tense: put do or does in front of the base form of the verb. • I do not intend to give up on winning counties. • Although the garden looks healthy, it does need watering. • For past tense: put did in front of the base form of the verb. • The athlete suffered many setbacks, but she did achieve her goal of playing in the championship game. • Did anyone make a study guide over break? The emphatic form
Conjunction is different from other verbs Progressive form is generally used only in past and present tenses No form of the verb takes an emphatic form. The verb be
Past tense verbs express an action or state of being that existed or happened in the past and did not continue into the present. • I stayed at the library until closing time. (past) • I was researching the life and times of Akhenaten, an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who instituted a monotheistic religion. (past progressive) • My research did provide me with enough information for my paper on Akhenaten. (past emphatic) Using The Past tense
Present tense verbs express an action or state of being that is occurring now, at the present time. • Elise, Jill, and Amy wait patiently to be called on in class. (present) • Elise, Jill, and Amy are waiting patiently to be called on in class. (present progressive) • Elise, Jill, and Amy do wait patiently to be called on in class. (present emphatic) Using the present tense
show a customary or habitual state of being • Mrs. Mathews grades essays within one week. • state a general truth – something that is always true • It is wrong to murder someone. • to summarize the plot or subject matter of a literary work (literary present) • Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband into murder. • to make a historical event seem current (historical present) • Japan’s bombing of Pearl Harbor causes America to enter World War II. • to express future time • American Idiotopens next week and runs through the summer. Other uses of present tense
Future tense verbs express an action of state of being that will occur. • I shall attend the Writer’s Workshop at the University of Pennsylvania this summer. (future) • I shall be attending the Writer’s Workshop at the University of Pennsylvania this summer. (future progressive) Using the future tense
The present tense of be + going to + base form of a verb • My parents are going to visit China next year. • Present tense of be + about to + base form of a verb • Ms. Molloy is about to address the student body. • Present tense of a verb with a word of word group that expresses future time • Midterms begin on Tuesday, January 18th. Other ways to indicate a future action
The past perfect tense expresses an action or state of being that ended before some other past action or state of being. • Past perfect verbs are formed with the helping verb had and the past participle of a verb. • I finally remembered where I had seen her before. (past perfect) • I had been digging through my backpack before I realized that the book I needed was in my locker. (past perfect progressive) The past perfect tense
The present perfect tense expresses an action or a state of being that occurred at some indefinite time in the past. • The tense is formed with the helping verb have or has and the past participle of a verb. • I have written to the governor, but I have not received a reply. (present perfect) • Who has been borrowing my iPod without asking? (present perfect progressive) The Present perfect tense
Remember, present perfect is ONLY for events that have occurred at some indefinite point in the past. Do not use present perfect tense to indicate a specific time in the past. Use past tense for that! The present perfect tense
Yes! NO! • Apple published a new app for the iPhone last week. • When I was six I wanted to be an astronaut. • I have applied to a summer program in Washington D.C. but I have not heard any news about my acceptance yet. • Apple has published a new app for the iPhone last week. • When I was six I have wanted to be an astronaut. • I applied to a summer program in Washington D.C., but I did not hear any news about my acceptance yet. Be careful with present perfect!
Present perfect is also used to express an action or state of being that began in the past and that continues into the present. • The United States Marine Corps has existed since 1775. (present perfect) • The Corps has been serving on occupation duty in Iraq since early 2004. (present perfect progressive) The Present perfect tense
The future perfect tense expresses an action or state of being that will end before some other action of state of being. • The tense is formed with the helping verbs will have or shall have and the past participle of a verb. • By the time the year is over, you will have written more than four essays. (future perfect) • By March, the yearbook staff will have been working on the 2010 yearbook for one whole year! (future perfect progressive) The Future Perfect Tense
Identify the tense of each verb (and any relevant forms) in these sentences. How do the differences in tense affect the meanings of the sentences? a. Margo lived in Brazil for eight years. b. Margo has lived in Brazil for eight years. a. How many home runs did Derek Jeter hit this season? b. How many home runs has Derek Jeter hit this season? a. Our team is producing the whole film ourselves. b. Our team will be producing the whole film ourselves. Understanding the uses of the six tenses
When describing events that occur at the same time, use verbs in the same tense! • The bell rings, and the classroom empties. (present) • The bell rang, and the classroom emptied. (past) • When describing events that occur at different times, use verbs in different tenses to show the order of events. • I run track now, but I played volleyball in middle school. • Cara mentioned that she had invited the whole lunch table to the party, but I know that I did not receive an invitation. • Remember, the tense you use expresses its own meaning, so choose wisely. Sequence of tenses
Do not use would have in an “if” clause that expresses the earlier of two past actions. Use the past perfect tense instead. Sequence of tenses
Yes! No! • If he had taken more time building his project, he would have won the science fair. • I would not have been late if I had had a watch. • The storm would not have been as bad if it had moved through more quickly than it did. • If he would have taken more time building his project, he would have won the science fair. • I would not have been late if I would have had a watch. • The storm would not have been as bad if it would have moved through more quickly than it did.
Pam appreciated the old saying that every cloud had a silver lining. By the time we graduate in June, Sra. Vargas will be teaching Spanish for twenty-four years. Although Denny’s skill was demonstrated during the season, he was not chosen to play in the all-star game. If they would have called sooner, we would have given them a ride. When Jeremy got to the dentist after school, his tooth already stopped hurting. Fix any mistakes in the following sentences
Reminder: an infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. It generally begins with to. • Present infinitive examples: • To be • To discover • To go Present Infinitive
The present infinitive expresses an action or a state of being that follows another action or state of being. • Charlotte had expected to go with us to the Bergen dance. • She had planned to ask her mother for permission. • In both cases, the action expressed by the infinitive follows the action expressed by the earlier verb! Present Infinitive
Form the present perfect infinitive with to + have + past tense of verb • Present perfect infinitive examples: • To have been • To have discovered • To have gone Present Perfect infinitive
The present perfect infinitive expresses an action or a state of being that precedes another action or state of being. • My little brother pretended to have read my diary. • I would like to have gone to the dance, but I have to study. • In both cases, the action of the infinitive occurs before the action expressed by the earlier verb. Present Perfect infinitive
Write a total of six sentences. Use the present infinitive in three of them and the present perfect infinitive in three of them. Try It!
Reminder: a verbal is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. When used as a verbal, the present participle or past participle expresses an action or state of being that occurs at the same time as another action or state of being. Present and Past Participles
Receiving word of their freedom in June 1865, former slaves in Texas created the Juneteenth holiday. (The two actions occur at the same time.) Gathered at my grandmother’s house, my family celebrated Juneteenth this year. (The two actions occur at the same time.) Remember to keep the verb tense of the participle and the other verb the same! Present and past participles
When used as a verbal, the present perfect participle expresses an action or state of being that precedes another action or state of being. • Having missed the midterm exam, I took a makeup test. • Having been accepted by several colleges, Sam chose one. Present perfect participle
Write a total of six sentences. Use the present or past participle in three of them and the present perfect participle in three of them. Try it!
Spending three hours on a review of chemistry, we then worked on irregular French verbs. Standing in line for more than two hours, Vicky finally got tickets to the Lady Gaga concert. To have written about the historical Macbeth, I would have to do more research at the library. Flying from California to New Jersey before, we remembered to set our watches back. Using tenses correctly: Spotting mistakes