Verb Tense Tense denotes the time of the action indicated by a verb. The time is not always the same as that indicated by the name of the tense.
Verb Tenses Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect 6 Types
Past Tense • Past tense expresses action completed at a definite time in the past. • Examples: He wrote the letter yesterday. She lived to be 90 years old.
Present Tense • Present tense may express action which is going on at the present time or which occurs always, repeatedly, or habitually. • Used to state general fact . • Examples: He sees the train. He eats cereal for breakfast every day.
Future Tense • Future tense expresses action which will take place in the future. • It uses the helping verbs will or shall* and the present tense form of the verb). • Examples: He will send the letter tomorrow. I shall wait here until you return. • * Traditionally, shall is used for 1st person and will for 2nd and 3rd persons.
Perfect tense • Perfect tense describes a finished action • Has/have/had plus ed form of verb
Past Perfect Tense • Past perfect tense expresses action completed before certain time in the past. (This is the before-past tense.) • It uses the helping verb had and the past participle of the verb. • Example: She had written the letter before I saw her.
Present Perfect Tense • Present perfect tense expresses action completed at the present time (perfect means complete) or begun in the past and continuing into the present. • Suggest the past event is influencing present events • This tense uses the helping verbs has and have and the past participle of the verb. • Examples: • He has written a letter to his uncle. (completed action) • The Waltons have lived here for seven years. (continuing)
Future Perfect Tense • Future perfect tense expresses action which will be completed before a certain time in the future. (This is the before-future tense) • It uses the helping verbs will have or shall have and the past participle of the verb. • Example: He will have finished the paper before next Friday.
PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE • X happened before z • Shows that the action started at some point, continued for a period of time, and eventually interrupted or stopped. • I was riding my bike all day yesterday. • Carlos lost his watch while he was running.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE • The indicates continuing action, something going on now. • formed with the helping "to be” am/are/is verb, in the present tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): • "I am buying all my family's Christmas gifts early this year.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE • "I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon. • Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November. "
Watch for date clues. • After the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, which has led to revised legislation concerning the number of lifeboats on passenger vessels, a similar disaster on HMHS Britannic in 1916 resulted in the survival of nearly all the passengers. • Has led • had been leading • Was led • Led • Will have led
D • Needs to be in past tense
No dates but past references • Most people are familiar with the singer’s recent albums, many of which have gone platinum, but few fans are aware of the number of the songs he composes for other artists before he was famous. No error
General truths present tense • The bottlenose dolphin is one of the most commonly encountered mammals because it will like warm, shallow waters. • because it will like warm, • because it has been liking warm, • because it likes warm, • because it like warm,
The release of the blockbuster was previously planned for late May, but due to some problems with editing the film was released next December. No error
2 events happen at the same time same tense • The doctor eliminated many diagnoses when he discovered the rash. • As I drew the cartoon character, my teacher watched over my shoulder.
Just when my unsuspecting parents arrived home from their anniversary dinner, the party guests are finding places to hide in the living room for the big surprise. No error
Arrived and are finding have two tense. • Are finding should be were finding.
Past perfect errors • Only the verb that happens first deserves had • Trevor had viewed the movie so I asked him about its content.
When we finally reached the animal rescue center, we learned that the white puppy had been adopted before we had arrived. No error.
The banks were closed, and by the time Jill found a store that would cash her check, the basketball game started, so she missed the first four innings.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE • Happened in past and continues • "She has been running and her heart is still beating fast."
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE • HAD" plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): • indicates a continuous action that was completed at some point in the past. • "I had been working in the garden all morning. George had been painting his house for weeks, but he finally gave up."
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE • continuous action that will be completed at some point in the future. • "WILL" plus the modal "HAVE" plus "BEEN" plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending) • Next Thursday, I will have been working on this project for three years."