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CHAPTER 6. RELIGION. FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER. Universal vs. Ethnic Major Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage of world population…) Major branches of those religions

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  2. FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER • Universal vs. Ethnic • Major Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage of world population…) • Major branches of those religions • Where are the major religions and their major branches and why are they there? (ex. Historical migration patterns • How do different religions affect the environment • Examples of religious tension/fighting/war

  3. GEOGRAPHERS & RELIGION… • Geographers are concerned with the process of how religions diffuse and possible conflicts • Examine how religions have a two way relationship with the environment • They want to understand why some are widespread and others are clustered in specific places

  4. ISSUE #1 Where are Religions Distributed?

  5. TYPES OF RELIGIONS UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Appeal primarily to one group in one place About 24% of world’s population • Attempt to be global • Appeal to all people, regardless of location or culture • About 62% of the world’s population • Are divided into branches, denominations, and sects



  8. World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent. KNOW THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  9. World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two thirds of the world’s population adhere to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.

  10. CHRISTIANITY • 3 major branches are Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox • About 90% of people in the Western Hemisphere are Christian

  11. ISLAM • Islam means “submission to the will of god” • a follower of Islam is called a Muslim (one who surrenders to God) • Predominates from North Africa to Central Asia • population is increasing in North America and Europe • 2 main branches are Sunni and Shiite (Shia)

  12. BUDDHISM • Located primarily in China and Southeast Asia • 3 main branches are Mahayana, Theravada, Tantrayana • Accurate count is difficult because: • Few participate in Buddhist institutions • Differs from Western concept of a formal religion • Communism in China

  13. ETHNIC RELIGIONS • You are responsible for this section, pages 188-190.

  14. ISSUE #2 Why do Religions Have Different Distributions? (read and know the intro!!!)

  15. ORIGINS UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Unknown/unclear origins not identified with one specific individual (ex. Hinduism-Indian culture over several centuries) - Judaism is an exception • Specific places of origin • Based on the life of one man (ex. Christianity-Jesus, Islam-Muhammad, Buddhism-Siddhartha)

  16. DIFFUSION-UNIVERSALIZING All 3 diffused from specific hearths located in Asia. Buddhism-present day India and Nepal; Christianity-present day Israel; Islam-present day Saudi Arabia

  17. CHRISTIANITY Diffused through a combination of all types of diffusion (relocation and expansion)

  18. ISLAM Diffused very rapidly through North Africa, SW Europe and SW Asia


  20. DIFFUSION - ETHNIC • Limited to no diffusion; usually by relocation diffusion • Unlike universalizing, they don’t have missionaries • They are often either replaced by URs or mix with them • Ex. Traditional African religious mixing with Christianity • 70% of Japanese say they are Buddhist, 90% say they are Shinto (huh?) • Judaism the exception to this trend – it’s practiced in many countries, not just location of its origins

  21. TYPE 2 • List 3 universalizing religions and 3 ethnic religions • List 3 major differences between universalizing and ethnic religions • List the primary locations of the 3 universalizing religions (use regions, not countries – for ex. Western Hemisphere, Eastern Europe….)

  22. HOLY PLACES UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Tend to be tied to the physical environment of the hearth (mountains, rivers…) Ex. Ganges River for Hindus • Tend to be tied to places related to the founder (cities, villages…) Ex. Mecca for Muhammad/Islam


  24. WESTERN WALL (wailing wall) • Section of the western wall that remains of the Jewish Temple destroyed in A.D. 70 • Extremely sacred place for Jews

  25. DOME OF THE ROCK • Built to represent the greatness of Islam • Built on the site of the rock on which Abraham went to sacrifice his son • Also the site of Muhammad’s “night journey”

  26. CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHER • Built over the site of Jesus’ burial • Extremely sacred to Christians

  27. Holy Sites for Buddhists Fig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.

  28. Buddhist TempleBodh Gaya, India

  29. Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.

  30. Makkah during the Haj Pilgrimage The Ka’ba stands at the center of the Great Mosque (al-Haran al Sharif) in Makkah.

  31. Ritual Bathing in the Ganges River Hindu pilgrims achieve purification by bathing in the Ganges.

  32. Baha’i Temple in Uganda

  33. The Golden Temple in Amritsar The Golden Temple (Darbar Sahib) in Amritsar, India is the holiest structure for Sikhism.

  34. Baha’i Temple in Uganda

  35. COSMOGONY • Read this section on 199-200. Look at how universalizing and ethnic differ in the following: • Creation of the world? How? • Interaction with nature? • Modification of nature?

  36. CALENDAR UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Holidays based primarily on physical geography of the homeland (seasons and agriculture) Ex. - Holi for Hindus - Bontok of the Philippines • Holidays based primarily on significant events of the founder’s life Ex. - birth of Jesus (Christians) - Siddhartha’s birth (Buddhists)

  37. CALENDARS - ETHNIC • Prominent feature of ERs is the celebration of seasons – particularly for agriculture • Judaism– major holidays based on agriculture in Israel • Ex. Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement – Fall) • Use a lunar calendar • Solstice has a significant meaning for many ethnic religions (shortest and longest days of year)

  38. CALENDARS - UNIVERSALIZING • Prominent feature is celebrating events of the founder’s life • Islam uses a lunar calendar, Christianity a solar • Holidays arrive in different seasons from generation to generation when using a lunar calendar(ex. Ramadan for Muslims) • Not all members of URs celebrate same holidays on same day ( ex. Easter, Buddha’s birth)

  39. ISSUE #3 Why do Religions Organize Space in Different Patterns? (AP test likes questions about the impact of religion on space)

  40. Places of Worship • All major religions have these structures/buildings • The function of these locations influences the arrangement of them over the landscape • Have different characteristics, purposes, meanings…. • The distribution of these religious elements on the landscape reflects the importance of religion for that particular society

  41. Christianity – Church (sanctified for public worship) Islam – Mosque (public assembly) Hinduism – Temple (more for shrines, home is used more for worship) Buddhism, Shintoism – Pagodas (contain relics)

  42. Church – St. Paul’s in London

  43. Blue Mosque - Turkey Blue Mosque - Turkey

  44. Hindu Temple - India

  45. Pagoda - China

  46. SACRED SPACE • How religions distribute their elements across land depends on their beliefs • distributions range from very small (cemetery) to very large (entire communities - ex. Salt Lake City, Utah) • Most significant land use is for burial and religious settlements

  47. SACRED SPACE - BURIAL • Climate, topography, and doctrine combine to create different burial practices • Use of cemeteries (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) • Health concerns • Bodies facing certain direction • Used as parks • Take up valuable land (ex. China now encouraging cremation) • Not all bury dead (ex. Cremation for Hindus)

  48. SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS • Most settlements serve an economic purpose, some serve a religious one • Utopian societies (Salt Lake City) • Religious impact on colonial settlements (clustered settlement patterns of Puritans in New England)

  49. SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS PLACE NAMES • Roman Catholics often give place names (also called ?????) to settlements, particularly in the new world • Quebec • U.S. Southwest

  50. Place Names in Québec Fig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.

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