Power systems engineering Mike He, NicBeutler, Sascha von Meier, Seth Sanders
Questions • What are the technical advances that will be needed to enable this new world • Scale up or scale down - microgrids or utility-driven?
Priorities of the Future Grid • Cheaper energy • More reliable energy (power quality) • Greener energy The smart grid challenge is how to reconcile these oft-competing priorities
The Precarious State of the Grid • It is hard to know how close we are to wide-area failure • Recent outages were unforeseen • “Works in practice but not theory” • Security • Wide-area stability with renewables is unknown
Key Technologies • Monitoring – visible, transparent understanding • PMUs • Oscillations and damping at nodes • Stability support from switched generation • Communication and coordination • Coordinate local decisions with global optimization • Two-way power flow enablers • Protection • Control
Technologies cont’d • Micro-synchrophasors (distribution level) • Transformative and disruptive • Greatly improve transparency and visibility • Allows for fast solving of Optimal Power Flow • Enabler for switched generation to provide stability
Electric Grid as a Commons • Competitive paradigm does not match physical reality • Distributed generation – does it weaken the commons? • DG owners optimize for profit, not system stability • How can DG be drafted to support the commons • Aggregator?
The Development of DG • 2.5% of CA generation • IEA estimates 25% of new capacity will be DG through 2030 • 13 GW of new DG in 2009 • 80% small (avg 100kW)
Global dichotomy • Developed regions will remain mostly centralized • DG will begin to play significant role • CA: 12 GW of DG by 2020 • Developing regions may develop significant DG • Leapfrogging developed regions
Modern Electricity Grid • Centrally Controlled • Large-scale Central Generation • One-way Power Flow • Homogeneous Power Quality, Reliability