Using the RTI Process To Develop Individualized Positive Behavior Support Plans How RTI Teams Work Together to Link the RTI Process and Positive Behavior Support Plans Presented at the RtI Summer Institute Grand Island, Nebraska July 30 - 31, 2007 Dr. Susan Lindblad, School Psychologist Molly Elge, M.S., Behavioral Consultant
Objectives • Participants will understand how to use the RtI process when working with students who present problem behavior(s) • Participants will understand how the functional assessment of problem behavior drives the positive behavior support plan • Participants will follow the RtI process and positive behavior support plans developed for several students
What is RTI for Behavior? • “Many evidenced-based interventions for behavior are available; they include methods based on applied behavior analysis (e.g., reinforcement), social learning (teaching expected behaviors through modeling and role playing), and cognitive behavioral methods to teach ‘thinking skills’ such as problem solving, impulse control, and anger management. The RTI focus on regular objective assessment helps us to decide whether to maintain, modify, intensify, or withdraw an intervention” (Sprague, 2004)
What is RtI for behavior? (in layman’s terms) • Uses evidence-based interventions to help students change behaviors • RTI documents a change in behavior as a result of intervention(s) • Uses the same three-tiered approach logic as is used for academic issues
Four themes related to RTI and Behavioral Supports • Behavioral (and academic) interventions are based on the intensity of the presenting problem. • RTI provides the basis for changing, modifying, or intensifying interventions. • Evidence-based practices are used for selecting interventions and for evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions and the degree of fidelity with which it is applied. • Social validation is the final, critical component to positive behavioral supports.
Level One Primary Interventions • Universal Interventions applied to everyone to the same degree, used to keep problems from emerging • School wide discipline plan • School wide social skills instruction • School wide teaching on conflict resolution, violence prevention, bully prevention, etc • High and consistent behavior expectations • Researched-based methods for behavior training • Teacher and parent consultation
Level 1:How Well Are We Doing? • Is our Building Level Behavior Plan working? • What data define the effectiveness of school-wide discipline plans? • What is the relationship between targeted student performance and school-wide or classroom-level data?
Building LevelBehavior Referral Analysis • Building Demographics • Gender • Male 50% • Female 50% • Race • White 62% • Hispanic 24% • African Am. 12% • Other 2% • SES • Low SES 38%
Level TwoSecondary Interventions • Interventions applied to students identified with marked behavior difficulties and whose response to Level 1 intervention places them at risk for greater problems • May include 5% - 10% of students • Small group instruction differentiated by skill • Generally includes the initiation of a Functional Behavior Assessment
Level 2:How Well Are We Doing? • What are the top 5 Behavior Referrals in your classroom, building, or district? • These are the areas that school psychologists or behavior consultants need to address with small group skills training.
Current Level of Performance = 35% Benchmark = 75% Peer Performance = 40% GAP Analysis = 40/35 = 1.1 NO significant GAP Use Level 1 Intervention Current Level of Performance = 35% Benchmark = 75% Peer Performance = 80% GAP Analysis = 80/35 = 2.28 Significant GAP Use Level 2 Intervention Individual Student Examples
Functional Behavior Assessments Are Certainly NOT “Optional” • The Standard of our Profession • National Institute of Health • State Laws and Regulations • IDEA • President’s Commission on Excellence in Education
Purpose of the FBA • To determine empirically the relationship between the variables controlling the behavior and subsequently to modify these behaviors. • Definition: An on-going method for identifying the variables that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior. • Can be addressed by any team member, although is usually the school psychologist.
Primary outcomes of the FBA • Clear description of the problem behavior as well as replacement behavior • Identification of stimuli that predict when the problem behaviors will and will not occur • Identification of consequences that maintain the problem behaviors • Development of hypotheses regarding the function of the behavior. • Collection of data to test the hypothesis
Examples • Carla is unable to remain in her seat because the peers reinforce her for getting out of her seat more than the teacher reinforcers her for staying in it. • WHEN Carla is out of her seat THEN she is reinforced by peers at a higher ratio than by the teacher when she is seated. • Carla is reinforced frequently by peers for out of seat behavior. Her teacher provides more negative feedback for out of seat behavior than positive feedback for in seat behavior. • Intervention????
Behavioral Interventions • Evidenced Based Interventions fall under four broad theoretical categories: • Applied Behavior Analysis • Social Learning Theory • Cognitive Behavior Therapy • Neobehavioristic S-R Theory
Applied Behavior Analysis • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Examines functional relationship between antecedents, behaviors, and consequences • Goal is to determine the function that the problem behavior serves in a specific situation so that more socially appropriate replacements behaviors that serve the same function can be found and utilized. • Most school-based interventions utilize ABA techniques
Other Evidence Based Theories • Social Learning Theory • Bandura • Vicarious learning, reciprical determinism • Cognitive Behaivoral Theory • Goal to change maladaptive cognitions • Common in treatment of affective disorders • Neobehavioristic S-R Theory • Based on classical conditioning • Common in treatment of anxiety disorders
School Based Interventions • The bad news: • Are not chosen for empirical support or functional assessments • Are often chosen due to: • Personal Preference “I like that one” • Popularity “Everyone else does this” • Ease of Implementation “This one is easier” WE WILL EACH BE RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGING THIS!!!
Level 3: Tertiary Interventions • Interventions applied to students who have chronic behavior problems. • Students “select” themselves by not responding to interventions at Level 1 and Level 2. • Interventions are more labor intensive, complex, intrusive, and possibly costly. • GAP continues to widen or with no change in difference. • Use of individualized problem-solving, “diagnostic” procedures, and intensive interventions. • Commitment to find interventions that “work” prior to making a decision regarding entitlement.
Level 3: How Well Are We Doing? • One school psychologist was added to the 14 elementary school teams in order to increase assistance at Level 2 • Referrals to the Behavior Team decreased from 23 in 2005-2006 to 17 in 2006-2007 (27% decrease) • Alternative placements dropped from 27 in 2005-2006 to 24 in 2006-2007 (12% decrease)
Level 3 Behavior Referrals • Based upon your experience, what types of behaviors are the most frequently referred for Level 3 interventions? • Verbal aggression? • Physical aggression? • Impulsivity? • Attention problems? • Work completion problems? • Anxiety/Depression issues? • ???????
Intervention Support • Intervention plans should be developed based on student need and staff skills • All intervention plans should have intervention support • Principals should ensure that intervention plans have intervention support • Teachers should not be expected to implement plans for which there is no support
Pre-Meeting Review data Review intervention steps Determine logistics First 2 Weeks 2-3 meetings per week Review data Review intervention Revise as necessary Following Weeks Meet at least weekly Review data Review intervention Discuss revisions Approaching Benchmark Review data Schedule for intervention fading Review data Steps to Ensure Support
Johnny: Level 3 Student • Problem Behavior: Johnny is a first grade student who is exhibiting problem behaviors. He is very impulsive and acts without thinking. He will get into others personal space(touching), he doesn’t stay on task(plays with materials at desk), he gets out of his seat several times during a lesson(20 minute lesson -out of seat 6 times), he will talk out trying to get the teacher’s attention while she is teaching(20 minutes lesson-5 talk outs). • Level: Interventions *Johnny’s parents worked with him at home for 10 minutes at a time on reading poems. *Johnny’s parents tallied number of redirections needed to keep him seated and on topic. • Level 2: Interventions *Classroom teacher implemented daily notes to go between home and school. *Staff avoided verbal confrontation with Johnny until he was calm. *Self Directed Time-Outs
Expected Outcomes • Out expectations for the structuring the Guided Reading Tasks were to lessen or eliminate teacher disruptions. • To start, we wanted Johnny to earn 21 smiley’s out of 33 a day. He needed to earn 7 smiley’s per behavior.
Expected Outcomes • The behavioral support para worked with Johnny daily on the Boys Town Skills. • We expected Johnny to start using the coping skills he was learning when he became frustrated.
Ongoing Evaluation • Johnny’s team met every 4 weeks to discuss progress and concerns. • Before the end of school we had Johnny start graphing the results of his smiley face chart and keep track if he made his daily goal. • For the summer we had Johnny’s parents continue his smiley face chart(as appropriate for the summer).