210 likes | 445 Vues
Chapter 6. Marine Emergency Response. Part One. SEARCH AND RESCUE AT SEA. Vocabulary. SAR: Search and Rescue 海上搜救. enshrine [ in5Frain ] vt . 铭记. -be enshrined in one’s heart 被深深珍藏在某人心中，铭记心中 memories enshrined in one's heart 珍藏在内心的回忆. neighbouring [ 5neibEriN ] adj . 毗邻的，附近的.
E N D
Chapter 6 Marine Emergency Response
Part One SEARCH AND RESCUE AT SEA
Vocabulary SAR: Search and Rescue 海上搜救 enshrine [in5Frain] vt. 铭记 -be enshrined in one’s heart 被深深珍藏在某人心中，铭记心中 memories enshrined in one's heart 珍藏在内心的回忆 neighbouring [5neibEriN] adj. 毗邻的，附近的 -Synonyms: adjacent ; immediate; close to
Vocabulary adoption[E5dCpFEn] n. 采纳；采用 adopt vt. Cf: adapt vt.&vi. adapt to 适用于 on-scene commander OSC 现场指挥员；现场指挥船 installation [7instE5leiFEn] n. 装备；设施 Install v. 安装，装配
Pool vt. 合伙经营, 共享, 共有, 集中(钱、力量等), 采掘, 汇聚成 Let's pool our resources to finish the project quickly. 让我们集合我们的资源以尽快完成这个项目 Expedite v. 加速, 派出 adj. 畅通的, 迅速的 Expedite the implementation of the convention
Introduction Search and Rescue Convention • The 1979 Search and Rescue Convention, adopted at a conference in Hamburg, was aimed at developing an International SAR plan, so that, no matter where an accident occurs, the rescue of persons in distress at sea will be co-ordinated by a SAR organization and, when necessary, by co-operation between neighbouring SAR organizations. 指1979年IMO大会通过的《1979年国际海上搜寻和救助公约》（International Convention of Search and Rescue at Sea1979---SAR79），简称《1979年国际搜救公约》。
Although the obligation of ships to go to the assistance of vessels in distress was enshrined both in tradition and in international treaties (such as the international Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea,1974),there was, until the adoption of the SAR Convention, no international system covering search and rescue operations. although conj. 引导让步状语从句 until prep. 直到…才 尽管不论传统惯例还是国际公约（如1974年海上人命安全公约）都切实强调救助遇险船舶的义务，但是，一直到采用搜救公约之前，都不存在搜救作业的国际体系。
Introduction Search and Rescue Convention In some areas there was a well-established organization able to provide assistance promptly and efficiently, in others there was nothing at all. some coastal countries all over the world It outlines operating procedures to be followed in the event of emergencies or alerts and during SAR operations. This includes the designation of an on-scene commander and his duties. 在有些地区，有设置好的机构，能够随时给予及时而有效的救助，但是，在其它的地方，却什么都没有。 in the case of 在…情况下
Introduction Search and Rescue Convention • Parties to the Convention are required to establish ship reporting systems, under which ships report their position to a coast radio station. This enables the interval between the loss of contact with a vessel and the initiation of search operations to be reduced. It also helps to permit the rapid determination of vessels which may be called upon to provide assistance including medical help when required. = Vessel Reporting Systems (VRS) 船舶报告系统，是依据SAR79附录第六章的规定确定的。许多国家均建立了自己的船舶报告系统，以协助并配合海上搜寻和救助工作，达到救助海上人命的目的。
Passage One Search Patterns Vocabulary： adj.& adv.顺风的（地） downwind [5daJnwInd] n. 顺风 基准面 e.g. Chart datum ; datum mark datum [5deitEm] n.基点 square [skwZE] n. 正方形,矩形 radius [5reidjEs] n. 半径 square [skwZE] vt. 使成方形 square up把…摆正 radius track 径向 track [trAk] n. 航迹；路径 sector [5sektE] n. 扇形，扇形面 e.g. warm sector; obscured sector; sector search
vocabulary reciprocal [ri5siprEkEl] adj. 互惠的, 相应的, 倒数的, 彼此相反的 reciprocal respect. reciprocal love parallel to [5pArElel] 与……平行；平行于…… demonstration [7demEns5treiFEn] n. 表演；示范；演示 adaptable [E5dAptEbl] adj. 适应的 blackout [5blAkaut] n. 断电，停电 victim [5viktim] n.受害者 demonstrate vt.示范操作(机器、仪器、产品等)；演示，显示 e.g.The fireman demonstrated great courage in saving the child. 那位消防队员在抢救孩子的过程中, 表现了极大的勇气。
Passage One Search Patterns There are various searches that can be carried out, the following searches are recognized in the IAMSAR Manual. 扩展方形搜寻方式 1. Expanded Square Search (Fig 1): International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual《国际航空/海上搜寻与救助手册》 Downwind for 1 mile, alter to starboard 90 degrees, go down this course for 1 mile; Then alter 90 degrees to starboard and go down this course for 2 miles. Then alter 90 degrees to starboard and go down this course for 2 miles. Keep adding 1 mile ever time you alter to starboard. (All distances are just for examples). This pattern of search is suitable for only a single vessel engaged in search and rescue operations, i.e. expanding from the datum towards outside into a square pattern.
Search Patterns 2. Sector Search (Fig.2): 扇形搜寻方式 Go Downwind for 1 mile, alter 120 degrees to starboard, this course for 1 mile, then,Alter to starboard 120 degrees and go on this course for 2 miles going through datum, thenAlter to starboard 120 degrees for 1 mile, then Alter to starboard 120 degrees for 2 miles going through datum, thenAlter to starboard 120 degrees for 1 mile, thenAlter 120 degrees to starboard for 1 mile back to datum, then go down the Blue track as follows: Alter 30 degrees to starboard for 1 milethen go to the above and do the same againthen go down the Black tracks as follows: Alter 30 degrees to starboard for 1 milethen go down the above and do the same again (All distances are just for examples) This pattern is suitable for only a single vessel under particular circumstances (such as someone falling overboard), i.e. starting search from the datum along the radius track, forming many sectors in one circle.
Search Patterns 3. Parallel Search (Fig.3) 平行航线搜寻方式 With this search it can be done with 1 or more vesselsThe main vessels starting the search are the two back arrows next to datum (Black square)They will go up past datum and after a certain distance will turn away from each other at 90 degrees, then at very short distances on this track will turn and go parallel to each other on reciprocal courses, they will do this until told to stop. Other vessels (Red arrows) will take the next berth alongside the main 2 search vessels and also turn away from each other. This search pattern is suitable for 2 or more vessels engaged in search operation, i.e. each vessel is keeping course parallel to that of the other one.
Search Patterns • 4. Williamson Turn (Fig.4) 威廉逊旋回 This turn is particularly adaptable in rough weather and periods of low visibility having been developed with night rescue in mind under blackout conditions. Experience has indicated that the turn takes approximately 5 minutes longer than a standard turning circle, and for that reason it should not be used if it is possible to keep the victim in sight. It is possible that with calm seas or certain conditions of wind and sea, a quick turn at full speed or to “back down” would be the best manoeuvre, however, that is up to the “seaman’s eyes” of the officer. For this demonstration, assume your going due North turn towards the side that the man fell overboard, (in this case he fell over the starboard side). Alter till you see 060 degrees on your compass. Alter hard to port till you see 200 degrees on your compass. Square up your helm to amidships, this will take you down on reciprocal course.
Passage Two Terminologies Vocabulary marshal [mɑ:ʃəl] v.指派，安排 CSS海上搜救协调船（员） =Co-ordinator Surface Search Syn. designate; lead; arrange; assign; appoint etc. A vessel, other than a rescue unit, designated to co-ordinate surface search and rescue operation within a specified area is known as Co-ordinator Surface Search (CSS). breeches buoy 双筒救生圈，裤型救生圈 tail-block 索尾滑车，带尾绞辘 tail-block and whip带尾绞辘 whip绞辘 指：搜救船 concurrently英[kənkʌrəntli] 美[kənkərəntli] adv. 同时发生地，并存地 -at the same time international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 国际民用航空组织
Terminologies IMO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR) 1. EPIRB EPIRB is the short form of Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon. The overall concept upon which the GMDSS is based is that all ships will carry an EPIRB. EPIRB is designed to alert a shore Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC), via a satellite link, in the event of an emergency. They can be operated both manually and automatically. They will also provide the identity and approximate position of the ship in distress. The RCC will then use modern communications to discover what ships are in the vicinity and marshal appropriate resources to provide assistance. 《国际海事组织商船搜救手册》 IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR) 应急无线电示位浮标（船舶遇险沉没时，能自动漂浮海面伸出天线进行发报的设备） 《国际海事组织搜救手册》 海上搜救协调中心
2. CSS A vessel, other than a rescue unit, designated to co-ordinate surface search and rescue operation within a specified area is known as Co-ordinator Surface Search (CSS).Several merchant ships are arriving at the scene of a distress incident. One of them must assume the duties of the CO-ordinator Surface Search, which must be established by mutual agreement between the ships concerned. Course directed by the OSC and CSS to be steered at the beginning of a search is initial course. The Co-ordinator Surface Search in a SAR situation should display by night a distinctive signal promulgated by the CSS. Steer vt.驶向…方向，掌舵，朝…方向驾驶 Syn: except 除…以外(不包含在内) 在遇险事故现场 [əsju:m] vt. 假设，假装；承担，担任 初始航向 在搜寻开始时，由现场指挥员和海上搜救协调船所指示的航向。
3. Breeches buoy 双筒救生圈，裤型救生圈 Breeches buoy is being rigged from the shore to a stranded vessel. The initial shot line passed to the vessel is normally made fast to a tail-block and whip which may be used to pass a hawser to the vessel. 最初被递到船上的那节缆绳通常被系固在船上的带尾绞辘上，可以把大缆带到船上。 4. Airplane rescue 直升机救助 If an airplane circles 3 times, crosses the vessel’s course close ahead while rocking the wings, and heads off in a certain direction, it indicates that someone is in distress in that direction and the vessel should follow and assist. An obstruction on a heli-deck is any object that might present a hazard to the rotor blades and landing gear.
5.SAR Manual 搜救手册 • Concurrently with the revision of the SAR Convention, the IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) jointly developed the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual, published in three volumes covering Organization and Management; Mission Co-ordination; and Mobile Facilities. The IAMSAR Manual revises and replaces the IMO Merchant Ship Search and Rescue Manual (MERSAR) and the IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR). 国际民用航空组织 国际航空/海上搜寻与救助手册 《国际海事组织商船搜救手册》 与搜救公约修改的同时，国际海事组织和国际民用航空组织联合制定了《国际航空/海上搜寻与救助手册》，分三卷出版，包括：组织与管理；任务协调和移动设备。 《国际航空/海上搜寻与救助手册》修改并取代了《国际海事组织商船搜救手册》 和《国际海事组织搜救手册》 。 《国际海事组织搜救手册》
Brief Comment • Part One Search and Rescue at Sea 1. Introduction of SAR Convention 2. Passage One: Search Patterns 3. Passage Two: Terminologies Homework Assignment 1.Review all the words and terms learnt today and remember then by heart. 2.Read the two passages abovelearnt correctly and frequently. 3.Prepare Part Two Fire-Fighting and Life-saving at Sea Class is over!