1 / 30

Chapter 5 Organizing The Elements

Chapter 5 Organizing The Elements. OBJECTIVES. Describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements in his table Explain how the predictions Mendeleev made and the discovery of new elements demonstrated the usefulness of his periodic table

Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 5 Organizing The Elements

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 5 Organizing The Elements

  2. OBJECTIVES • Describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements in his table • Explain how the predictions Mendeleev made and the discovery of new elements demonstrated the usefulness of his periodic table • Describe the arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table • Explain how the atomic mass of an element is determined and how atomic mass units are defined

  3. Identify general properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids • Describe how properties of elements change across a period in the periodic table • Relate the number of valence electrons to groups in the periodic table and to properties of elements in those groups • Predict the reactivity of some elements based on their locations within a group • Identify some properties of common A group elements

  4. In 1750 scientists had identified only 17 elements most of these were metals • As the number of identified elements grew so did the need for organization • In 1789 Antoine Lavoisier grouped elements according to categories called metals, non-metals, gases and earths

  5. In 1860 Mendeleev (Russian) needed to describe the now known 63 elements to his students • On cards, he listed the name, mass and properties of the 63 elements • He arranged them in order of increasing atomic mass. He was able to break the elements into rows (see pg 127 Fig. 3 and columns based on the properties of the elements

  6. Columns increased from TOP to BOTTOM • He knew that not all elements were discovered yet so he left room for them • Properties of elements are related to its location in the table • Review questions 1-5 pg. 129

  7. 5.2 Modern Periodic law • In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged by increasing ATOMIC NUMBER (number of protons) • PERIODS • Each row in the periodic table is a period • Ex. Period 1 has 2 elements period 2 and 3 have 8 elements • The number of elements in each period varies because of the available orbitals increase from energy level to energy level

  8. In other words---------the first energy level has only 1 orbital so, the 1 electron in a H atom and the 2 electrons in a He atom can fit in this orbital • But Li contains 3 electrons---------so 2 can fit in the 1st orbital and the other electron has to go in the 2nd orbital(or energy level) this is why Li is the first element in Period 2

  9. Na (sodium) the first element in period 3 has one electron in its 3rd orbital or energy level • K (potassium), the first element in Period 4 has one electron in its 4th orbital • This pattern applies to all elements in the first column on the table

  10. GROUPS (FAMILIES) • Each COLUMN is called a group or family • The elements within a group have similar properties (electron configurations) • The electron configuration determines the chemical properties • THE PATTERN OF REPEATING CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IS CALLED PERIODIC LAW • REFER TO FIG. 7 PGS 132-133

  11. Atomic Mass • Copy Fig. 8 into your notebook • There are 4 pieces of information for each element • Name of the element, its symbol, its atomic number, and its atomic mass(the number of isotopes and their mass in nature) • Atoms of 2 isotopes have different atomic masses(isotopes have different # of neutrons than protons) they are usually equal

  12. Classes of Elements • Solids, liquids, gases based on their state at room temperature • Symbols solids (black) liquid (purple) gas (red) • Elements are divided into those that occur naturally and those that do not • Ex. Elements with an atomic number of 93 or above DO NOT OCCUR NATURALLY • 1-92 occur naturally

  13. Third classification is based on general properties • Metals—located on left (blue) • Non-metals located on right (yellow) • Metalloids located in the middle (green)

  14. METALS • Majority of elements are metals • Represented by blue boxes • Good conductors of heat • Electric current • Solid at room temperature (except mercury) • Most are malleable • Many are ductile (able to be drawn into thin wire)

  15. Groups 3 through 12 are referred to as transition metals • These transition metals form a bridge between the elements on the left and right • One property of these metals is their ability to form compounds with distinct colors • Ex. Tinted glass • They are among the 1st elements discovered

  16. NONMETALS • Represented by yellow boxes • Have properties opposite to those of metals • Poor conductivity of heat and electric • Low boiling points • Many are gases at room temperature • Are brittle (will shatter or crumble)

  17. METALLOIDS • Represented by green boxes • Properties of these elements fall somewhere between metals and nonmetals • Their ability to conduct heat or electric depends on their temperature

  18. Variation across a Period • Changes in the properties of elements change in a similar way when you move from left to right (except for period 1) • From left to right, elements become less metallic and more nonmetallic • Most reactant elements or on the left side of the table • Most reactive nonmetals are on the right side (group 17) • Copy fig. 13 into your notebooks • Complete questions 1-5 and 7

  19. Valence electrons • An electron that is in the highest occupied energy level of an atom • Valence electrons play a key role in chemical reactions • The properties of elements vary because the number of valence electrons increases from left to right

  20. Remember that elements in a group have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons • Ex. Hydrogen and Lithium have I valence electron

  21. Alkali metals elements in group 1A • 1 valence electron • Highly reactive • Ex. Sodium chloride (table salt) • Group 1A Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr • Their reactivity increases from TOP TO BOTTOM

  22. Alkaline Earth metals • Group 2A • Contain 2 valence electrons • Harder than metals in group 1A • Differences in reactions with water • Calcium and magnesium are essential to biological functions

  23. Magnesium • Key role in photosynthesis • Mixture of magnesium and other metals can be as strong as steel but much lighter • Calcium • Keeps bones and teeth strong, toothpastes may contain calcium to polish teeth • Plaster casts contain calcium sulfate

  24. The Boron Family • Group 3A • Contain 3 valence electrons • Aluminum(metal) most abundant metal in the earth’s crust • Boron(metalloid)

  25. The Carbon Family • Group 4A • 4 valence electrons • Contains 1 nonmetal(carbon) • 2 metalloids(silicon, germanium) • 2 metals(tin, lead) • Life on earth would not exist without carbon, most compounds in your body contain carbon • Silicon is the 2nd most abundant element in the crust

  26. The Nitrogen family • Group 5A • Contain 5 valence electrons • Contain 2 nonmetals(arsenic, antimony) • 1 metal(bismuth) • 1 nonmetal gas (nitrogen) • 1 solid nonmetal(phosphorus) • In this group phosphorus and nitrogen are most important • Contained in fertilizers and compounds in your body to release energy

  27. The Oxygen family • Group 6A • Contain 6 valence electrons • 3 nonmetals (oxygen, sulfur, selenium) • 2 metalloids (tellurium, polonium) • Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust • Can be stored as a liquid, under pressure • Ozone is another form of oxygen ground level is an eye irritant, in the atmosphere absorbs radiation

  28. The Halogens • Group 7A • 7 valence electrons • Highly reactive nonmetals • 2 gases (fluorine, chlorine) • 1 liquid (bromine) • 1 solid (iodine) • All react easily with most metals

  29. Fluorine compound used to prevent tooth decay, non-stick coatings • Chlorine is in bleach, and used to kill bacteria in drinking water and pools (bromine for hot tubs) • Your body needs iodine to keep your thyroid gland working properly

  30. The Noble Gases • Group 8A • 8 valence electrons (except helium) (2) • This means these elements have a full outer shell • This group does not react with any other elements • Questions 1-10 page 145 • Internet activity—see if you can find the 25 essential elements to the human body and 3 elements that should be avoided completely

More Related