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  1. Mao 1893-1976

  2. Mao Zedong • Communist • Political Leader • Military Strategist • Intellectual • Teacher • Poet • Calligrapher

  3. China during Mao’s Formative Years Mao was born in Hunan Province

  4. China Divided among Imperialists

  5. Governed by a Nasty Old Lady and her Infant Grandson, Puyi Puyi reigned from the age of 2 until age 18 The Dowager Empress Cixi of the Qing Dynasty

  6. From Humble Beginnings Mao is the family name. Zedong was the eldest child of a fairly prosperous peasant family and so received some education. MAO ZEDONG 1919 Photo with siblings

  7. An Early Revolutionary Figure 1911-1912 Mao served in a Hunan Province militia against imperial rule Emperor Puyi in 1911

  8. Mao’s University Life • Majored in education • Worked at the library at Peking (Beijing) • Read Karl Marx and followed Lenin’s lead

  9. Mao Hones His Skills as a Rebel May 4, 1919 Mao participated in the May Fourth Movement, a student-led protest that called for the modernization of China

  10. Mao Turns Toward Communism • 1921 Mao participates in the founding of the Chinese Communist Party • Under orders from the Comintern, Mao joins the Nationalists under Sun Yat-sen Sun in 1920, a hero to the peasants

  11. The Alliance is Only Temporary • Sun dies leaving Chaing Kai-shek as leader of the Kuomintang • Mao establishes a rebel base to wage guerilla war in 1927 Chaing in 1930

  12. The Long March • 1934-1935 • 6000 mile retreat • 87,000 Red Army soldiers • Kuomintang led by German Hans von Seeckt • Communists led by Russian agents under German Otto Braun • After the Reds lose ½ their men, Mao takes over

  13. Mao’s Tactics “The enemy advances, we retreat. The enemy camps, we harass. The enemy tires, we attack. The enemy retreats, we pursue.” Mao is referred to as the father of modern guerilla tactics

  14. Red Army v Kuomintang

  15. Peasant Support Turns the Tide Mao’s Six Principles of the Red Army • Put back all doors when you leave a house • Rice-stalk mattresses must be bundled up again and returned • Be polite. Help people when you can. • Give back everything you borrow, even if it’s only a needle. • Pay for all things broken, even if only a chopstick. • Don’t help yourself or search for things when people are not in their houses

  16. Women and the Red Army • Traditional Peasant Society • Women were second class citizens • Wives are expected to do what their husbands told them to do • Unmarried women were the property of their family • Under Communism • Women were given far more rights (not equality) • Women were recruited into the Red Army

  17. World War II Impacts Mao in China

  18. Japan Eyes China’s Resources • Puyi is placed on the thrown of Manchuria • Japan invades the mainland in 1937 • Japan’s Rape of Nanking shocks the world. Emperor Puyi Japan’s Emperor Hirohito

  19. Mao’s Guerilla War against Japan • Forces led by Zhu De and Lin Biao • As soon as Japan surrenders, Mao turns on Chaing • Chaing flees to Taiwan (Formosa) ZHU BIAO CHAING

  20. Mao Establishes the People’s Republic 1949 the Kuomintang are defeated at Nanking

  21. The Great Leap Forward • Announce in 1958 as an attempt to increase agricultural and industrial production • Communes contain as many as 75,000 people • Self-governing collective farms and factories • Each family receives a share of the profits and a small plot of land • Set-backs doom progress • Three years of bad harvests and floods • USSR decides to withdraw technical experts

  22. Didn’t Look before He Leaped! Words and pictures (propaganda) didn’t measure up

  23. Reliance on Industry Shortsighted Steel will lead the way

  24. Mao “Retires” as Chairman-1962 • Replaced by Liu Shaoqi • Becomes highly critical of Khrushchev’s foreign policy • By 1966, Mao springs back with a vengeance! Liu Shaoqi, China’s PRC Chairman 1959-1968 Nikita Khrushchev, USSR Chairman 1953-1964

  25. Cultural Revolution1966-1976 China, not the USSR will bring about World Revolution Mao and Lin Biao will purify China • End wage differentials • Strengthen collectives • Establish a classless society • Purge out all counter-revolutionaries • Oust the revisionists with the Red Guard End of Soviet-Chinese Relations

  26. Madame Mao (the 5th) Gains Control

  27. That Old Gang of Mine…

  28. Revolutionary or Reactionary? • Four Cleansing Movement (1963) • Politics • Economics • Ideas • Organization

  29. “Smash the old world/Establish a new world.” Classical example of Red art from the early Cultural Revolution. A worker (or possibly Red Guard) crushes the crucifix, Buddha and classical Chinese text with his hammer, 1967.

  30. Cult of Personality The Four Olds • Red Guard formed in a middle school • Goal to punish Mao’s political enemies • Neutralize intellectuals • Deeper stage of the socialist system • Abolish the Four Olds • Instill the 16 Points Old Customs Old Culture Old Habits Old Ideas

  31. The 16 Points • Freedom of speech • People’s Liberation Army • To air one’s view fully • To write big-character posters • To hold great debates • The right to strike • To end the bourgeoisie • Change the mental attitudes of the whole of society • To criticize and crush capitalists • Repudiate reactionary academics • Transform art • Change the superstructure • Consolidate socialism • Discourage religion • Purge all counter-revolution • Cut class and travel to discuss Mao’s Thoughts

  32. Victims of the Cultural Revolution • Liu Shaoqi was sent to a detention camp and died • Deng Xiaoping was sent 3 times for re-education The last emperor, Puyi became and gardener and a productive member of the proletariat

  33. Some of the Effects of the Revolution • Mass murder and forced suicides • Millions were humiliated publically • Leaders were forced to self-criticize • Massive purges of local officials • Down to the Countryside Movement • Families limited to one child • All Chinese are to wear simple peasant clothing • Citizens must read Mao’s Quotations and memorize each one • Two What-ever’s

  34. Death of Mao Zedong (1976)