Background to China 1840-1912 Mao Zedong
The Middle Kingdom 1840 moral and cultural superiority Foreigners = barbarians Relationship between Chinese and the British
Confucianism Key concepts: Li - 礼: ritual, propriety, etiquette Hsiao: love within the family Yi - 义: righteousness Jen: benevolence, humanness towards others – the highest Confucian virtue Chung: loyalty to the State
Opium British wanted access silk, tea and spices Needed commodity to trade British East India Company 1838 opium was ½ all imports to China
The First Opium War 1838 Chinese burned stocks opium British sent fleet to protect free trade 1842 Treaty of Nanjing
Impact on China Weaknesses Chinese military exposed Encouraged other powers establish trading centres Internal disruption – 1854-5 sixteen provinces threw off imperial rule
The Taiping Rebellion Most serious revolt Rival dynasty at Nanjing 1851-1864 ruled much of South and Central China Rejection Confucianism
The Tongzhi Restoration Attempt restore ‘good government’ ideal By 1874 clear not effective response to the West Need for new policies But… too radical for leadership
Consequences of Tongzhi Restoration 1. Devolution of operational autonomy 2. Question continuation Imperial bureaucracy 3. Element of Western learning introduced
The Hundred Days of Reform Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao institute radical reforms: Confucian examination system abandoned Western learning introduced at all levels Western style economic development introduced
Hundred Days of Reform Ended Provoked intense anger Emperor arrested by conservatives led by empress dowager Cixi Kang and Liang leave China
The Boxer Rebellion 1899 poor peasants and artisans formed alliance with anti-foreign court officials 1901 Boxers opposed international rescue force “Revive the Qing, destroy the foreign.”
Boxer Rebellion Poem There are many Christian converts Who have lost their senses, They deceive our Emperor, Destroy the gods we worship, Pull down our temples and altars, Permit neither joss-sticks nor candles, Cast away tracts on ethics, And ignore reason. Don’t you realise that Their aim is to engulf the country?
Boxer Rebellion Poem Their men are all immoral; Their women truly vile. For the Devils it’s mother-son sex That serves as the breeding style. No rain comes from Heaven, The earth is parched and dry. And all because the churches Have bottled up the sky. When at last all the Foreign Devils Are expelled to the very last man, The Great Qing, united, together, Will bring peace to this our land.
The Last Ten Years Qing Dynasty attempt reform End in 1911 – imperial forces joins rebels General Yuan Shikai promised presidency of new republic February 1912, the last emperor, Puyi, abdicates and republic is declared