National Conference onAgriculture Kharif, 2012 5th & 6th March, 2012 WATER MANAGEMENT & DRY LAND FARMING Presentation on – Department of Agriculture, Assam
WATER MANAGEMENT & DRY LAND FARMING IN ASSAM • Even with annual rainfall of 2296.3 mm(2011) suffer from moisture stress • Most of the rainfall received during monsoon (Jun-Sept) and major portion of the rainwater is lost through run off, causing erosion, adding water logging of low areas • After monsoon less water in profile to support agril production
MAJOR CONSTRAINTS • Degradation of crop field due to water logging, siltation is very common. • Soil erosion by high velocity run off. • Low rain water use efficiency. • Less investment in water use efficiency. • Inappropriate Natural resource management practices followed by farmers. • Lack of proper technique available for dry land farming suitable for the region .
MAJOR CONSTRAINTS • Due to erratic behaviour & improper distribution of rainfall agriculture becomes risky ,farmers do not want to adopt proper methods , tools whatever available for dryland farming. • Loss of soil fertility due to high velocity run off for undulating topography. • Low investment • Traditional cultivation • Low use of fertilizers • Shifting cultivation.
EXTENT OF LAND DEGRADATION & OTHER PROBLEMS • Waterlogged in crop field in summer due to poor management of seasonal stream going through the field. • Crop field affected due to siltation from seasonal stream • Gully formation in crop field, rapid top soil erosion in hilly districts
AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONEWISE AVAILABILITY OF MAJOR NUTRIENT IN ASSAM
AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONEWISE AVAILABILITY OF MAJOR NUTRIENT IN ASSAM Micronutrient deficiency in Soils of Assam
CROPPING PATTERN & CROPPING INTENSITY
STATUS OF POTENTIAL EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION (PET) IN DIFFERENT ZONES OF ASSAM
MANAGEMENT EFFORTS MADE FOR WATER HARVESTING, WATER USE EFFICIENCY, AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT, DIVERSIFICATION INTO LOW WATER INTAKE CROPS ETC.
AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT, DIVERSIFICATION INTO LOW WATER INTAKE CROPS ETC. • Govt. assistance for large scale production of Vermi compost under different scheme to increase the use organic matter. • Growing of Black gram , Green gram in water stressed area. • Maize is introduced in water stressed pockets. • Popularization of cultivation of Green Manuring Crops like Dhaincha.
INDEGENOUS & USEFUL CROP / PLAN VARIETIES & PRACTICES BY FARMERS • Cultivation of Banana, Ginger, Turmeric by mulching with paddy straw. • Putting check-dam on seasonal streams for surface irrigation. • Zero Tillage in Rabi Vegetable cultivation.
SUGGESTIONS • Cultivation of non traditional crops like medicinal plant, dye providing crops etc are also to be encouraged in dry land farming • Application of organic matter, green manuring to be promoted. • Proper crop rotation. • Water harvesting, management of drainage lines in field to be encouraged in community approach. • Research to evolve flexible cropping system & other aspects of dryland farming targeting to generate marketable surplus. • Conversion of area under Shifting Cultivation to permanent land use system.