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Seismicity Earthquakes PowerPoint Presentation
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Seismicity Earthquakes

Seismicity Earthquakes

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Seismicity Earthquakes

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Presentation Transcript

    1. Seismicity & Earthquakes

    2. Questions 1) Where would you expect the higher earthquake insurance rates: Florida or Oregon? 2) Briefly explain. 3) Did you use inductive or deductive reasoning ? 4) explain

    3. What is an Earthquake? Vibration of the Earth produced by the rapid release of energy. Energy release due to plate tectonics and failure (fault zones) of the Earths crust Energy radiates as waves in all directions from the focus (source) Epicenter surface expression of the focus

    4. Elastic Rebound Theory Tectonic forces slowly deform the rock As the rock bends, it stores energy When the rocks resistance to the stress is overcome, the rock slips or breaks Slippage occurs at the weakest point (focus), rock snaps back to original position Energy released produces the vibrations we know as an earthquake

    6. Earthquake Waves - Seismicity Seismic waves elastic energy released at the focus following the rupture of rock Seismology- study of earthquake (seismic) waves Seismograph instrument that records earthquake waves Seismogram record of the seismic waves

    7. Seismogram

    8. Seismogram

    9. Seismic Waves P-waves and S-waves are body waves, they travel through the Earths interior. Surface waves travel along the Earths outer layer.

    10. P-waves Primary Waves Compressional wave push and pull rock in direction of movement Can travel through all materials (solids, liquids, and gases) Fastest moving wave Smallest wave amplitude (lowest energy)

    11. S-waves Secondary Waves Shear wave - Waves shake material at right angles to their direction of movement TRAVEL ONLY THROUGH SOLIDS Intermediate speed 2nd to arrive as seismic station

    12. Surface waves Move up and down, similar to ocean waves Can also move side-to-side. Very damaging waves Travel the slowest last to arrive at seismic station Greatest wave amplitude (highest energy)

    14. Locating Earthquakes Need three seismic stations. Use the time difference (tH) in the arrival of the p-waves and the s-waves. Distance (d) extrapolated from a time-distance graph. A circle with a radius of d is drawn around the seismic station. Earthquake occurred somewhere on the circle. The intersection from three stations shows the epicenter location.

    15. Locations of Earthquakes By studying 1000s of earthquakes, geologists learned most occur along plate boundaries

    16. Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude Mercalli intensity scale Assesses the damage from an earthquake at a specific location Based upon human observation Can vary from location to location

    17. Earthquake Intensity and Magnitude Richter Scale Describes the earthquakes magnitude (energy released) Measures amplitude of largest wave, adjusted for travel time Is the same from location to location A 1 digit increase in Richter scale is a 30 fold increase in energy released

    18. Is the Earth Entirely Solid? What piece of the Earth is not solid? How do we know this? Seismic waves Different materials transmit waves at different speeds, i.e. p-waves change speed as they move from the crust to the mantle and from the mantle to outer core

    19. Wave Movement Through Homogeneous Earth

    20. Movement through material of different density

    21. Velocity and Amplitude Are a Function of the Material

    22. Velocity Profile Through Earth

    23. Liquid causes p-waves to bend (refract) Refraction of waves creates a zone where no p-waves are recorded (shadow zone) 103 to 143 degrees from focus P-wave Shadow Zone

    24. S-wave Shadow S-waves cannot pass through liquid Waves refract at surface of outer core, creating a zone where no s-waves are recorded (shadow zone) 103 to 180 degrees from focus

    25. Why did the 1895 EQ have a wider radius of influence?

    26. Earthquake Prediction

    27. Time Interval Analysis Statistics is used to generate a best-fit line which can be used to predict the time of the next earthquake Not reliable This example has not occurred

    28. Seismic Gap Look at the location of earthquakes Areas (Gaps) where no earthquake has happened is an area of accumulating strain Gaps represent locations of future earthquakes

    29. Seismic Gap Examples Alaska

    30. Environmental Impacts Tsunami Giant tidal waves created by earthquakes Move at speeds between 500 and 950 km/hr (300 600 miles/hr) Waves reach height of over 30 meters (100ft)

    31. Landslides and ground subsidence Vibrations cause unstable material to slide down slopes Vibrations cause stable material to turn into fluid liquefaction