Rough Draft Editing While Editing After Editing • Add • Remove • Modify • Substitute • Are there grammar errors? • Does it address the prompt? • Is there a clear introduction? Conclusion? • Two things that you like about the essay • Ask a question that would allow the writer to critically examine their work • Give two suggestions for improvement
Joseph • During the time of famine, Josephs’ brothers are sent by Jacob to buy grain for the family. • When Joseph sees them, he recognizes them as his brothers. Rather than admit what he realizes, however, he decides to persecute them. • He tells them that they must leave one of the brothers behind, and return with their youngest brother, Benjamin, in order to get the grain.
Joseph • Not knowing the secret of their connection, Joseph’s brothers return with Benjamin. They return with gifts, fruits and money. • After planting a silver cup on his brother, the men come back crying. Joseph, unable to contain himself any longer, reveals his identity.
Cultural Connection In Genesis 49:9, Judah, from whom Judaism derived its name, is referred to by his father (Jacob/Israel) as a “young lion”. The lion of Judah came to symbolize his tribe. In the 20th century, this title was claimed as a royal epithet by HaileSelassie I, emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. Selassie (who was originally known as RasTafari), a proponent of African independence from colonialism, has become the focus of devotion by members of a Jamaican religious movemetn known as Rastafarianism. Reggae and ska music, both influenced by the Rastafarian movement, employ “lion of Judah” as a song title and band name.
Exodus The word Exodus is from the Greek and literally means “the road out.” It is now used to describe any mass departure or emigration. The land that was to be the destination for Moses and the Israelites was referred to as a land of milk and honey. That phrase is now common for any vision of Utopia or for any situation for which living is easy.
Exodus • Exodus 3:13 -15: Ehyeh: This is not a noun, but a verb. It means “I am that I am” or “I will be what I will be.” • One common interpretation is that humans cannot fully understand the essence of God, and only understand Him by his actions and attributes. In fact, Jewish tradition forbids speaking God’s name which is denoted in the Bible as YHVH (Yaweh)
Exodus Songs known as Negro spirituals grew out of the experience of the slaves in the American South. Meeting in small, secret groups, slaves set the Bible to music. No account had more of an impact than the book of Exodus. The call-and-response song “Let My People Go” is one of the most popular spiritual songs.
Exodus When Israel was in Egypt’s land “Let My People Go” Oppressed so hard, they could not stand “Let My People Go” Go down, Moses, way down in Egypt’s land Tell ol’ Pharoh to let my people go! Thus said the Lord, bold Moses said “Let My People Go”
Exodus • From the time of his birth, Moses was blessed by God. Near Horeb, “the mountain of God,” and angel appeared to him in a flam of fire. Turning around, Moses realized that God was calling on him personally. This indicated that Moses was one of the great prophets of the Hebrew Scripture. • Prophet: One who speaks for God
Exodus • One Jewish commentary on Exodus said that God chose to appear to Moses as a flame in a scrubby desert thorn bush, “to teach you that no place on earth, even a thorn bush, is devoid of God’s presence.” Many western writers explore the theme of encountering God in nature, as did Elizabeth Barrett Browning in Aurora Leigh: “Earth’s crammed with heaven, And every common bush afire with God, And only he who sees, takes off his shoes – The rest sit round and pluck blackberries.”
Plagues • Rivers ran with blood • Frogs infested the land • Gnats swarm over Egypt • Flies swarm over Egypt • A deadly disease struck the Egyptian livestock • Festering boils torture people & animals • Hail kills beasts and people • Locusts devour the crops • Thick darkness descends on Egypt • The firstborn of all Egyptians die
Plagues • All of the plagues seemed to thwart one of the popular Egyptian deities, the greatest of these being Ra, the god of the sun. • Repeatedly, Moses demanded, “Let my people go.” After each plague began, Pharaoh at first agreed, but as the plague subsided, Pharaoh hardened his heart and changed his mind.
Plagues For the final plague that would allow Moses to lead the Israelites (Jacob’s descendants) out of Egypt, we gain the Jewish practice of Passover. God spoke to Moses: “You shall observe this rite as a perpetual ordinance for you and your children…And when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this observance?’ you shall say, ‘It is the passover sacrifice to the Lord, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when he struck down the Egyptians but spared our houses.” (Exodus 12:24-27)