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Medicine in the Middle Ages

Medicine in the Middle Ages

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Medicine in the Middle Ages

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  1. Medicine in the Middle Ages

  2. The more I study the more I know. The more I know the more I forget. The more I forget the less I know, so why study?

  3. Introduction • Middle Ages 476 – 1492 • Historical events are not interrupted

  4. Historical cross section

  5. Historical cross section

  6. Body representation • Myron - Discobolos

  7. Body representation • Phidias – Athena Parthenos

  8. Body representation • Nike of Samothrace

  9. Body representation • Laocoön and His Sons

  10. Body representation

  11. Byzantine medicine • It continued the Greek and Roman medicine • Christian State • Hospitals • Oribasius - Collectiones 70 books • Paul of Aegina – Medical Compendium in Seven Book • Bridge towards the Arab medicine

  12. Saints Cosmas and Damian • Arabian twins – Christians • Anargyroi • Murdered inDiocletianic Persecution • Incubation – emperor Justinian was cured in their temple in Constantinopolis • Patrons of medicine and pharmacy • Leg transplantation

  13. Contemptus mundi • Contempt of the world • Material became opposite to spiritual • The core of body’s malignancy is the sexual instinct • Even sexuality in marriage was condemned

  14. Hygiene • Lack of hygiene • Bath – only on holidays • Aphides • Aqueduct and sewer system nonexistant

  15. Housing • Intimacy- unknown • Everyone slept in one room • Urin and feces are collected during the day – and thrown through the window

  16. Nutrition and diseases • Chronic malnutrition • Child mortality was very high • 1347. Black death • Disease was considered as the God’s punishment • Flagellants i Saint Vitus Dance

  17. Monasteries • Order of Saint Benedict, Order of Saint John, Franciscans • Herbalism • Hildegard of Bingen – epilepsy – several books about medicine • Trotulaof Salerno - Regimen sanitatis

  18. Salerno school • Salerno - south Italy • Organized medical school • Epic “Regimen sanitatis” • Napoleon abolished it

  19. Arabic medicine • Bagdad – East • Cordoba - West • In 11thcentury Bagdad had 60 hospitals • Razi - original Perzian medicine • Avicenna (Abū Alī al-Husayn ibn Abdullāh ibn Sīnā) The Canon of Medicine

  20. Plague • Causative agent - BACTERIUMYersinia pestis • Primarily carried by rodents • Spread to humans via fleas –Xenopsilla cheopis

  21. Plague – types • Bubonic plague • Septicemic plague • Pneumonic plague • Pestis minor

  22. Plague - historical dynamics • 5th century b.C. plague of Pericles • 6th century – plague of Justinian • 1347 – Black Death • 1920 - Rijeka

  23. Plague - the black death 1347 – 1353 • Europe – 25-30 mil. dead (30-40%) • 1377. quarantine in Dubrovnik • Traces is arts • Invocation of patron saints

  24. Saint Roch • Legend – an angel has taken care of his wounds • Bubo on groin

  25. Plague risk factors • Towns • Lack of hygiene • Summer • Black rat • Turks

  26. Plague - treatment • perfumingcloths • burning brimstone (sulphur) • boilingvinegar • avoidingbeggars