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The Ozone ‘Hole’

The Ozone ‘Hole’. The Heat Balance. What is the purpose of ozone?. Located in stratosphere 25-30km a.s.l. Acts as protective shield against ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun What damage can UV radiation cause?

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The Ozone ‘Hole’

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  1. The Ozone ‘Hole’ The Heat Balance

  2. What is the purpose of ozone? • Located in stratosphere 25-30km a.s.l. • Acts as protective shield against ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun What damage can UV radiation cause? • Sunburn – skin cancer – snow blindness – cataracts – eye damage – ageing of skin – wrinkling of skin – 1997 suggested link to blood cancer

  3. What is the ozone ‘hole’? • Depletion 1st observed by British Antarctic Survey in 1977 • First ‘hole’ noted in 1985 • There is no actual hole in the layer of gases, they have just been depleted by over 50% • Each spring (Sept-Nov) over Antarctic the very low temperatures cause ozone to be destroyed in chemical reaction with chlorine

  4. Where does the chlorine come from? • Chloroflorocarbons – aerosols, refridgerator coolant, manufacture of foam packaging (long term) • Major volcanic eruptions – (short term)

  5. How bad is the problem? • 1993 Antarctic - over an area the size of the USA ozone was reduced to between half or two thirds of its 1970 levels • Over the Arctic ozone ‘hole’ first notes in 1989, ozone decreased 10% in 1990s • In Britain increase in UV rays 6.8% per decade since 1979 • 1% less ozone = 5% increase in skin cancer

  6. Can ozone appear else where? • Car exhausts generate ozone close to the earth’s surface • Damages plants & causes health problems eg. asthma (London 1994, Paris 1995) • Ground level ozone increases during warm, sunny, anticyclonic conditions • Nitrogen oxides from exhausts can react with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in sunlight to produce petrochemical smog under extreme conditions

  7. How is the troposphere heated? • The earth’s atmosphere is not directly heated by the sun. • The rays from the sun are mainly short-wave light rays (insolation). • SW rays are absorbed by the earth’s surface, converted into heat and returned to the atmosphere as long-wave heat rays by: • Radiation – transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves • Conduction – transfer by contact eg. poker in a fire • Convection – mass movement of a gas or liquid These LW heat rays are trapped by the water vapour in the atmosphere – this is called the Greenhouse Effect. Therefore, the atmosphere is heated from below and temperature decreases with altitude in the troposphere

  8. The earth’s temp. remains fairly constant Due to balance between SW (incoming) and LW outgoing radiation Net gain every where on earth’s surface except polar areas (high latitude & albedo) – curve A Net loss throughout atmosphere – curve B Net surplus between 35OS – 40ON (positive heat balance) Net deficit at high latitudes (polar regions) and high altitudes (negative heat balance) The Heat Budget

  9. 2 major heat transfers take place to stop tropical areas overheating. 1.Horizontal HeatTransfers from equator to poles 80% by winds 20% by ocean currents 2. Vertical Heat Transfers Conduction Convection Radiation Latent heat – the amount of heat energy needed to change the state of a substance without affecting its temperature. Heat is used up in melting & evaporation Heat is released by condensation & freezing (warming the atmosphere) So how is the heat surplus between 40oN&S transferred to other areas?

  10. Heat Transfers

  11. 1.height above sea level (altitude) Why does temp decrease with height? Decreased area of land surface from which to heat the air Density or pressure of air decreases – air not as able to hold heat (molecules fewer and more widely spaced) 2. Altitude of the sun As move towards pole land area to be heated by each ray increases due to angle & depth of atmosphere to pass through increases (more chance for scattering, absorption, reflection) Global factors affecting insolation(Long term)

  12. 3. Land and sea Diff. abilities to absorb, transfer & radiate heat energy Sea absorbs heat to 10m depth Sea transfers heat to greater depths via waves & currents Oceans act as thermal reservoirs in winter Sea has greater specific heat capacity SHC is the amount of energy required to raise the temp of 1kg of a substance by 1oC SHC of water 1 kilocalorie SHC of land 0.5 kc SHC of sand 0.2 kc Global factors affecting insolation(Long term)

  13. Mean annual range in temperature oCCoastal areas have a smaller annual range of temp. than locations at centre of continents

  14. Global factors affecting insolation(Long term) • 4. prevailing winds • Temp determined by area of origin and the surface over which it has blown

  15. Global factors affecting insolation(Long term) Circular currents: Clockwise in N Anticlockwise in S • 5. ocean currents • Horizontal transfer of heat energy • Warm currents head towards poles • Cold currents from poles to equator

  16. Temperature Anomaly = this term is used to describe temperature differences from a meanEg. Stornoway has a mean Jan temp 20oC higher than the aver for other places at 58oNNE Siberia 24oC colder than the mean at its latitude. WHY?

  17. Latitude – angle of the sun Revolution – earth revolves around the sun in 365 and a quarter days Rotation – earth takes 24 hours to rotate on its own axis Tilt – earth is tilted at 66.5o to the horizontal path of the earth’s travel Seasonal changes: Solstices – June 21st is the summer (sun at 54o and 17.5 hrs sunlight) – winter is December 22nd (sun at 12o and 6.5 hrs sunlight) Equinoxes – March 21st & September 22nd – sun overhead at the equator and all places have equal day and night Controls on temperature at global level:

  18. Aspect Cloud cover Clouds reduce day time temps Provide insulating layer to retain heat at night World’s greatest diurnal temp range found in tropical deserts Urbanisation Affects the albedo Creates urban ‘heat islands’ Local influences on insolation North facing - adret South facing - ubac

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