Functional Behavior AssessmentDay 2 Intermediate Unit 1 Presenter: Kristen N. Salamone
Session Objectives Participants will: • Analyze and Summarize results of FBA direct observation data and interview information • Identify the essential components of effective Positive Behavior Support Plans (PBSP) • Develop a specific PBSP for the behavior of concern • Develop a plan implementation and monitoring the PBSP
Agenda • Data Based Decision Making • Graph/Analyze Data • FBA Summary • Break • Report Findings • Lunch • PBSP • Break • Plan to Implement and Monitor PBSP
Review Ground Rules • Talk about behaviors, not judgments • Keep confidential (identifying) information out of discussions • Respect your districts and your colleagues districts • Recognize that working with difficult behavior is hard and it is OK to ask for help • Focus on future successes, not past failures • Understand that behavior change requires systematic instruction and is gradual in improvement
FBA: Review Conducting the FBA: Step 1: Informant Interviewing Step 2: Direct Observation with Data Collection Step 3: Analysis of Information/Formulate Hypothesis
Overview of Team Process for FBA --> PBSP • Conducting the FBA: Step 1: Informant Interviewing Step 2: Direct Observation with Data Collection Step 3: Analysis of Information/Formulate Hypothesis • Develop a Hypothesis or Summary Statement • Design a PBSP based on hypothesis or summary statement • Implement the PBSP • Monitor Progress and Evaluate Outcomes
Data Based Decision Making • What is it? • How can the Team use it? • How do you decide what to measure? • Which measurement strategy should I use? • How do I summarize the data to evaluate new strategies and interventions?
Why is it important? • Who should be on the team? • What are the critical features of an effective team? • Why is it important to collect meeting minutes? The Team Process
Critical Features of an Effective Team • Vision Statement • Ground Rules • Team Roles • Agendas and Meeting Minutes • Data-Based Decision Making
FBA Step 3: Analyze Information • Data Collected • Graphic form • Summarized • Analyze Data • Develop hypothesis regarding function the behavior is serving
Part 3 Steps • Write up a summary of your findings using Microsoft Word • Example 1 (single behavior) • Example 2 (multiple behaviors) • Create a chart or graph of your data (visual) and add it underneath your write up • Insert summary and visuals underneath the direct observation summary
Graphing • Importance? • Types of Graphs • Line • Bar • Pie Chart • Scatterplot
Important Elements of a Line Graph • Horizontal Axis (x axis) & Vertical Axis (y axis) • Points • Condition Lines • Condition Labels
Using a Graph to Interpret Data • Are there meaningful changes in the behavior over time? • To what extent can that change in behavior be attributed to the behavioral intervention or teaching strategy that was introduced?
Using a Graph to Interpret Data • Variability • Levels of Behavior • Trend
I Do • Anecdotal Recording • Classroom Scatterplot • Basic Event Recording • Interval Recording and Time Sampling • Duration Recording
Direct Observation Summary • Describe how often the behavior of concern occurs, how long it lasts, and at what intensity it occurs? • Describe any patterns to the occurrence of the behavior of concern.
Antecedent and Consequence Factors • Describe the antecedents that are present when the behavior of concern occurs. • Describe the consequences that appear to be maintaining the behavior of concern.
Form Hypothesis When ____________________(antecedent to behavior of concern), ________ (student) will _________________ (behavior of concern) in order to_________________ _____________________(perceived function of the behavior).
Case Study: Merging Gym and Special Education: Collecting Behavioral Data in a Chaotic Environment We Do
Your Turn! • Summarize findings in a word document. • Create a chart of your data. • Create a graph of your data using Excel. • Insert graph into word document.
Report Findings • Share findings with the group
Effective Positive Behavior Support Plans • Prioritize • Define • Teach!! • Gradual Improvement • Procedures
Positive Behavior Support Plan Components • Antecedents • Replacement Skills • Reinforcement • Alternative Discipline/Consequences
Antecedent (prevention) Strategies: • Strategies to remove/reduce identified antecedents to the behavior of concern • Strategies to make the behavior unnecessary in specific situations • Strategies to assist with the performance of the replacement behavior (cues and prompts) • Long term strategies to remediate skill deficits
Make a change… BEFORE the behavior occurs! Intervene in the Green: 2 types of antecedent interventions: • Change the setting event (S.E.) • Change the antecedent Maintaining Consequence S.E. Antecedents Behavior
Find an “opposite” for the antecedent: • Difficult Work/ • Long Tasks/ • Loud Environment/ • Close proximity to peers/ • No choice of task visible/ • Nonfunctional tasks/
Setting Event Interventions Find an “opposite” for the following: • No breakfast • Lack of sleep • Thirsty • Hot Day • Bad bus ride • Fight with parent/sibling/boyfriend before school
S.E. Strategies • Written Rules • Outlines • Graphic Organizers • Rehearsals • Social Stories • Lighting/ear plugs • Advance warnings
Manipulations • Choice of order of tasks • Modify tasks to produce functional outcomes • Pre-teach stories • Warning notices • Meal schedule and quantity
Replacement Behavior • Identify functionally equivalent replacement behavior • The Response Effort
Consequence Strategies • Reinforcement for performance of the replacement behavior.
Reinforcement for Replacement Behaviors • Rate • Immediacy • Quality
Types of Reinforcement • Tangible • Activity • Social
Teaching Desired Behaviors • Fading prompts • Pairing • Immediate consequences • Organized program
Consequence Strategies • Withholding of reinforcement • Delivering of punishment • Crisis plan section**
Consequence Interventions • Punishment (historically) • Tokens • Point systems • Reinforcers • Edibles • Praise • Thumbs up
Additional Strategies • Loss of privledges- recess, free time • Time-out • Time-away from reinforcement • Reprimand • Extra work • Write an apology • Restitution
Issues with Punishment • Person resents the punisher • Can result in aggression • Does not TEACH appropriate skill • Reduces self-esteem • Imitate the punishment • Physical harm • Sets a negative tone/negative school climate
Issues (cont’d) • Only effective in presence of punisher • May learn another, more challenging behavior • Must be accompanied by positive strategies • Reward the GOOD stuff • ALWAYS make it simple and doable
Positive Behavior Support Plan • Example
Your Turn • Complete the PBSP with your team
Monitoring Progress • Create data tools to track and monitor progress on PBSP • Create a plan to monitor progress with specific student
References ABA Concepts: Functional Behavior Assessment Presentation. Choutka, M.ED., C. Nonnemacher, M.ED., S. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The PA Code. www.padcode.com. US Office of Special Education Programs. Special Connections. http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu. The Pennsylvania Department of Training and Consultation (PaTTAN). www.pattan.net.