Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Support Planning Process SpEd 623 Behavior Support Brownbridge
School-Wide PBS Strategies Adapted from Sugai et al., 2000
Advances in School-Wide Discipline The Focus of School-Wide PBS is to… • Define, teach, and support appropriate behaviors • Increase positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior • Prevent problem behaviors • Enhance student academic and social success • Increase consistency in response to problematic behavior across all school staff
Effective School-Wide PBS • Addresses support in all settings (classroom, hallways, cafeteria, etc) • Are developed with teacher, student, and parent participation • Emphasizes collaborative problem solving • Builds on the school’s existing strengths
Five Major Components of School-Wide PBS • School-wideUniversal Interventions • ClassroomInterventions • Non-classroom / Non-instructional settings • Individual Intervention / Supports • School & Community Partnerships
An Introduction to Functional Behavior Assessment Strategies for supporting Individual Students who engage in problem behavior
Functional Behavioral Assessment: What is It? • FBA is a process for identifying the events that predict and maintain patterns of problem behavior • Outcomes of FBA include: • Description of the behavior(s) • Predictors and consequences of problem behavior (likely & unlikely) • Summary statements about the function(s) of the problem behaviors • Direct observation data • Allows (more)confident prediction of the conditions in which the challenging behavior is likely to occur or not occur and when there is agreement about the consequences that perpetuate the challenging behavior
Functional Behavioral Assessment • Clearly describes the challenging behaviors, including behaviors that occur together • Identifies the events, times, and situations that predict when the challenging behaviors will and will not occur across the range of daily routines • Identifies the consequences that maintain the challenging behaviors (what the person "gets out" of the behaviors, e.g., attention, escape, preferred items) • Develops one or more summary statements or hypotheses that describe specific behaviors, specific types of situations in which they occur, and the reinforcers that maintain the behaviors in that situation • Collects directly observed data that support these summary statements • A complete assessment allows confident prediction of the conditions in which the challenging behavior is likely to occur or not occur and when there is agreement about the consequences that perpetuate the challenging behavior.
Functional Behavioral Assessment • The functional assessment is a foundation of behavioral support. • The results of a functional assessment let caregivers design an environment that "works" for people with communication and behavioral challenges. • The person with the behavior challenges and those who best know the person collaborate with someone trained in (applied) behavioral analysis to plan collaboratively how to reduce or eliminate challenging behavior. • Functional assessment methods look at the behavioral support needs of people who exhibit the full range of challenging behaviors. • Functional assessments are mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 04) for use by Individualized Education Plan (IEP) teams addressing behavioral concerns. • Many states have laws or regulations stipulating the need for a functional assessment before permitting significant behavioral interventions.
Functional Behavioral Assessment: Why Use It? • It’s the law (IDEIA, 2004 PL 108-446) • It’s data-based • Leads to summary statements from which (a) hypotheses can be made, and (b) support plan(s) can be developed • Support plan(s) are more likely to be implemented • Support plan(s) are more likely to work • Support plan(s) are more likely to be efficient
When Do You Conduct an FBA? • Per IDEA statute and regulations • Prior to designing a behavior support plan • To evaluate progress after a behavior support plan is in place (ongoing)
FBA and IDEA IDEA 04: § 614 (b) Evaluation Procedures: (1) NOTICE- The local educational agency shall provide notice to the parents of a child with a disability, in accordance with subsections (b)(3), (b)(4), and (c) of section 615, that describes any evaluation procedures such agency proposes to conduct. (2) CONDUCT OF EVALUATION. – In conducting the evaluation, the local education agency shall – (A) use a variety of tools and strategies to gather relevant functional and developmental information, including information provided by the parent, that may assist in determining - • whether the child is a child with a disability; and • the content of the child’s individualized education program, including information related to enabling the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum or, for preschool children, to participate in appropriate activities; • not use any single procedure as the sole criterion for determining whether a child is a child with a disability or determining an appropriate educational program for the child; and (C) use technically sound instruments that may assess the relative contribution of cognitive and behavioral factors, in addition to physical or developmental factors.
FBA and IDEA (cont’d) IDEA 04: § 614 (b)(3): (3) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. – Each local educational agency shall ensure that – (B) the child is assessed in all areas of suspected disability; • assessment tools and strategies that provide relevant information that directly assists persons in determining the educational needs of the child are provided; and (D) assessments of children with disabilities who transfer from 1 school district to another school district in the same academic year are coordinated with such children's prior and subsequent schools, as necessary and as expeditiously as possible, to ensure prompt completion of full evaluations. IDEA 04: § 614 (c)(2): (c) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EVALUATION AND REEVALUATIONS. – (2) SOURCE OF DATA. – The local educational agency shall administer such tests and other evaluation materials as may be needed to produce the data identified by the IEP Team under paragraph (1)(B). 3) PARENTAL CONSENT- Each local educational agency shall obtain informed parental consent, in accordance with subsection (a)(1)(D), prior to conducting any reevaluation of a child with a disability, except that such informed parental consent need not be obtained if the local educational agency can demonstrate that it had taken reasonable measures to obtain such consent and the child's parent has failed to respond.
FBA and IDEA (cont’d) IDEA 04: § 615 (j) - (k)(1) • MAINTENANCE OF CURRENT EDUCATIONAL PLACEMENT- Except as provided in subsection (k)(4), during the pendency of any proceedings conducted pursuant to this section, unless the State or local educational agency and the parents otherwise agree, the child shall remain in the then-current educational placement of the child, or, if applying for initial admission to a public school, shall, with the consent of the parents, be placed in the public school program until all such proceedings have been completed. (k) PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING - (1) AUTHORITY OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL- (A) CASE-BY-CASE DETERMINATION- School personnel may consider any unique circumstances on a case-by-case basis when determining whether to order a change in placement for a child with a disability who violates a code of student conduct. (B) AUTHORITY- School personnel under this subsection may remove a child with a disability who violates a code of student conduct from their current placement to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension, for not more than 10 school days (to the extent such alternatives are applied to children without disabilities). (C) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY- If school personnel seek to order a change in placement that would exceed 10 school days and the behavior that gave rise to the violation of the school code is determined not to be a manifestation of the child's disability pursuant to subparagraph (E), the relevant disciplinary procedures applicable to children without disabilities may be applied to the child in the same manner and for the same duration in which the procedures would be applied to children without disabilities, except as provided in section 612(a)(1) although it may be provided in an interim alternative educational setting.
FBA and IDEA (cont’d) (k) PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING (cont’d) (D) SERVICES- A child with a disability who is removed from the child's current placement under subparagraph (G) (irrespective of whether the behavior is determined to be a manifestation of the child's disability) or subparagraph (C) shall-- (i) continue to receive educational services, as provided in section 612(a)(1), so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the goals set out in the child's IEP; and (ii) receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment, behavioral intervention services and modifications, that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. (E) MANIFESTATION DETERMINATION- (i) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in subparagraph (B), within 10 school days of any decision to change the placement of a child with a disability because of a violation of a code of student conduct, the local educational agency, the parent, and relevant members of the IEP Team (as determined by the parent and the local educational agency) shall review all relevant information in the student's file, including the child's IEP, any teacher observations, and any relevant information provided by the parents to determine-- (I) if the conduct in question was caused by, or had a direct and substantial relationship to, the child's disability; or (II if the conduct in question was the direct result of the local educational agency's failure to implement the IEP. (ii) MANIFESTATION- If the local educational agency, the parent, and relevant members of the IEP Team determine that either subclause (I) or (II) of clause (i) is applicable for the child, the conduct shall be determined to be a manifestation of the child's disability.
FBA and IDEA (cont’d) (k) PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING (cont’d) (F) DETERMINATION THAT BEHAVIOR WAS A MANIFESTATION- If the local educational agency, the parent, and relevant members of the IEP Team make the determination that the conduct was a manifestation of the child's disability, the IEP Team shall-- (i) conduct a functional behavioral assessment, and implement a behavioral intervention plan for such child, provided that the local educational agency had not conducted such assessment prior to such determination before the behavior that resulted in a change in placement described in subparagraph (C) or (G); (ii) in the situation where a behavioral intervention plan has been developed, review the behavioral intervention plan if the child already has such a behavioral intervention plan, and modify it, as necessary, to address the behavior; and (iii except as provided in subparagraph (G), return the child to the placement from which the child was removed, unless the parent and the local educational agency agree to a change of placement as part of the modification of the behavioral intervention plan. (G) SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES- School personnel may remove a student to an interim alternative educational setting for not more than 45 school days without regard to whether the behavior is determined to be a manifestation of the child's disability, in cases where a child-- (i) carries or possesses a weapon to or at school, on school premises, or to or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or local educational agency; (ii) knowingly possesses or uses illegal drugs, or sells or solicits the sale of a controlled substance, while at school, on school premises, or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or local educational agency; or (iii) has inflicted serious bodily injury upon another person while at school, on school premises, or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or local educational agency.
FBA and IDEA (cont’d) (k) PLACEMENT IN ALTERNATIVE EDUCATIONAL SETTING (cont’d) (H) NOTIFICATION- Not later than the date on which the decision to take disciplinary action is made, the local educational agency shall notify the parents of that decision, and of all procedural safeguards accorded under this section. • DETERMINATION OF SETTING- The interim alternative educational setting in subparagraphs (C) and (G) of paragraph (1) shall be determined by the IEP Team. (3) APPEAL - A IN GENERAL- The parent of a child with a disability who disagrees with any decision regarding placement, or the manifestation determination under this subsection, or a local educational agency that believes that maintaining the current placement of the child is substantially likely to result in injury to the child or to others, may request a hearing.
Functional Behavior Assessment: Six Phases Phase 1: Historical and Background Data Phase 2: Determine the Target Behavior Phase 3: Direct Observation Phase 4: Generate a Hypothesis Phase 5: Verify the Hypothesis Phase 6: Determine the Function of the Behavior
Phase 1: Historical and Background Data • The first step in a functional behavioral assessment is collecting historical and background data. • A review of historical and background data helps: • verify the existence of a problem • define the target behavior • Principle of Confidentiality: be aware of the confidentiality procedures in your district.
Phase 1(cont’d) • When you collect data, look for information that helps answer some of the following questions: • How long? • Frequency? • Who is affected? • Where it is/is not a problem? • Setting Events? • Verifying the existence of a problem involves: • reaching agreement that behavior is detrimental to student learning • recognizing that teachers have different levels of tolerance
Phase 1(cont’d) • Two methods used to explore a student's historical background are: • Archival Records Review • Interviews • An archival records review consists of: • systematic collection of historical and background data • organization of information into relevant categories • The purpose of an archival records review is to determine related issues. The information can be used to: • identify contexts • guide interviews • determine when and where to observe the behavior
Phase 1(cont’d) • Some patterns and issues which may emerge from an archival records review include: • absences • age differences • inconsistent educational performance • repeated referrals • discrepancy between test scores and performance • problems associated with particular environments
Phase 1(cont’d) • Interviews can provide a wide variety of information that help to focus your assessment. Interviews may uncover: • standards and expectations • expected behaviors • settings and people where the behavior occurs • settings and people where the behavior doesn't occur • past contexts • previous problem behavior • what problem behavior looks like • setting events • events that occur immediately before the behavior • potential reinforcers • historical information
Phase 1(cont’d) • When conducting an interview you may want to: • use scripted questions • conduct informal interviews • use multiple sources (informants) • compare information from different sources • Recommended sources for interviews include: • teachers • caregivers • student • related service providers: O.T., P.T., speech/language therapist, psychologist, mental health workers, etc.
Phase 2:Determining the Target Behavior • The next step is defining the target behavior. • Defining the target behavior provides a focus for collecting data • sources of data are the archival records review and interviews • The definition of a target behavior consists of: • a general category of behavior and • specific descriptors • Inappropriate definitions • A target behavior definition is inappropriate if: • it does not have a general description of the type of behavior • it does not follow the general behavior type with specific descriptors • it uses terms which are judgmental or terms that are not observable and measurable (e.g., off-task)
Example 1 Non-compliant Disruptive Moody Example 2 Rips up her assignment and drops the pieces on the floor Makes short, guttural animal sounds whenever another student raises his hand Places head on his desk and refuses to move (ends when student’s head is not touching the desk) Which Example Provides More Clarity?
Phase 2(cont’d) • Appropriate definitions: • Non-compliant: Rips up her assignment and drops the pieces on the floor • Non-compliance: refusal to work, failure to follow directions • Disruptive: loud voice, singing, call outs • Disruptive: Makes short, guttural animal sounds whenever another student raises his hand • Verbal aggression: loud voice, insults to peers,cursing, sexist &/or racist language/terms • Verbal and Physical aggression: loud voice, insults to teachers/peers, pushing, hitting, slapping
Defining a Problem Behavior • Avoid using a classification label (for example, ADHD, autism, etc) • Describe exactly what the behavior looks like • Avoid using vague descriptions (temper tantrums mean different things to different people) • Make sure the behavior is described in such a way that it is observable and measurable
Phase 3:Direct Observation • Before you begin direct observation: • identify the target behavior • determine context in which the behavior is likely to occur • be sure you have permission from the parent or legal guardian • Direct observation can help: • refine the definition of the target behavior • identify what the problem behavior looks like • further identify contexts for the behavior • identify connections between contexts and behavior • identify what happens when a problem behavior occurs • identify what happens right before a problem behavior • identify how people respond to problem behavior • create a baseline that can be used later to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral support plan • provide information that helps develop hypotheses
Phase 3(cont’d) • Three methods of direct observation are: • Scatter Plot Analysis • Antecedent - Behavior - Consequence (A-B-C) Assessment • Post-Hoc Incident Report
Phase 3(cont’d) Scatter plotting: • estimates frequency of behaviors across school day • identifies patterns of behavior • areas of the Scatter Plot Form • student name and starting date • open, crossed, and filled boxes • open: no occurrence • crossed: low frequency • filled: high frequency • vertical axis (time of day in 30 min. intervals) • horizontal axis (days)
Phase 3(cont’d) Antecedent - Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) Assessment • A-B-C assessment allows us to draw connections between what happens immediately before, during and after student behaviors. • The observer must be present during the observation. • Observations should last from 15 to 40 minutes. • You should conduct at least 3 observations, preferably in at least 2 different environments
Phase 3(cont’d) • When you enter a teacher's classroom, be sure to: • schedule the observation in advance • identify target student • check on planned activities • be inconspicuous • avoid interacting with the students • have teacher identify you as a classroom observer • settle in before beginning • Sections of the A-B-C Form • The top of the form is for recording pre-observation information. • The center section of the form is used for recording your observation data. • The key to making sense of ABC data is to identify two types of behavioral chains: • behavioral chains that contain the target behavior • behavioral chains that do not contain the target behavior
Phase 3(cont’d) Post-Hoc Incident Report • The Post-Hoc Incident (PHI) Report is used to collect data when an observer is not in the classroom. • Teachers can communicate valuable data through the PHI Report. • There are two types of PHI Report Formats: • Formal PHI Report • similar to the A-B-C assessment • filled out as soon as possible after the incident • breaks the behavior down into its components
Phase 3(cont’d) • Informal PHI Report • the best option when teachers and staff do not have experience with ABC assessment • fill out as soon as possible after the incident. • the user answers the questions at the top of each column. • the information will be easier to interpret if you also record it on the Formal PHI Report Format.
Phase 4:Generate Hypotheses • An hypothesis is a testable explanation of how antecedents and consequences affect the behavior in question. • You will review the information you've gathered from various resources including: • archival records • interviews • scatter plot analysis • A-B-C assessment • Post-Hoc Incident Reports
Phase 4(cont’d) Good hypothesis statements include the following components: • Setting Event • Antecedent • Problem Behavior • Consequences
Setting Events • Increases the likelihood that a student will engage in problem behavior • Momentarily changes how a student responds to reinforcers and punishers in a student’s environment • Can occur a long time before a problem behavior or it may be an event that is happening before and during a problem behavior
Setting Events Can Be • Environmental (noise levels, sitting next to a peer, late to school) • Social (fight during lunch, family crisis) • Physiological (sickness, allergies, sleep deprivation)
Antecedent Events (Triggers) • Immediately precedes a problem behavior • Can be related to time of day, people, specific settings, the physical surrounding, or particular activities • Common examples include verbal demands, specific assignments, certain peers or individuals
Consequences • The stimulus that is presented contingent upon the occurrence of problem behavior • Common consequences include teacher attention, the removal of a difficult task, or the presentation of something the student wants
Phase 5:Verifying Hypotheses • Only a verifiable hypothesis is useful in determining the function of the behavior. • If our hypothesis is correct, we have the right information to determine the function of the behavior. • If our hypothesis in incorrect, we may need to test an alternate hypothesis or return to our data to create a new one.
Phase 5(cont’d) • Manipulating the predictor variables • The predictor variable refers to the antecedents and/or consequences that appear to predict the appearance of the target behavior. • 2 rules to remember about manipulating predictor variables • only withdraw the predictor variable if the behavior is dangerous. • present and withdraw the predictor variable if the behavior is not dangerous.
Phase 5(cont’d) • Verifying the results • Did the behavior predictably increase or decrease as you tested your hypothesis? • If yes, then you have correctly identified the predictor variable for the target behavior. • If no, then you must go back and test another hypothesis.
Phase 6:Function of the Behavior • For the purposes of functional behavioral assessment in the majority of situations/cases (not all!), assume that the behavior serves one of two functions: • to get something that is wanted • to avoid something that is not wanted
Phase 6:(cont’d) Determining The Purpose of Behaviors • The purpose of the behavior may be ATTENTION if ... • It occurs when you are not paying attention to the child (e.g., you are talking fo someone else in the room, talking on the phone). • It occurs when you stop paying attention to the child. • The purpose of the behavior may be ESCAPE/AVOIDANCE if ... • It occurs when you ask the child to so something (e.g., household chore, getting ready for school, taking a bath) that he or she doesn't seem to like or want to do. • It stops after you stop “making demands.” • The purpose of the behavior may be GETTING SOMETHING if ... • It occurs when you take away a favorite toy, food, or activity. • It stops when ever you give the child a toy, food, or activity that he or she seems to like, or has recently requested. • It occurs when the child can't have a toy, food, or activity he or she has requested.
Phase 6:(cont’d) Determining The Purpose of Behaviors • The purpose of the behavior may be SELF-REGULATION if ... • It tends to be performed aver and over again in a rhythmic or cyclical manner. • It tends to happen when there is either alot going on in the area or very little (e.g., noise, movement, people, activity ...). • The child can still do other things at the same time as he or she is performing the behavior. • The purpose of the behavior may be PLAY if ... • It occurs over and over again in a rhythmic or cyclical manner. • It would occur repeatedly when no one else is around. • The child seems to enjoy performing the behavior (e.g., smiles, laughs, ...). • The child seems to be in his or her “own world” when performing the behavior & he or she can’t do other things at the same time.
Behavior Support/ Intervention Plans • O’Neill et al. (1997) outline four considerations in developing effective BSPs or BIPs • BSPs describe OUR behavior • BSPs should build from FBA results • Sugai & Palmer hold that an FBA is incomplete without a BSP/BIP • BSPs should be technically sound; they should: • Make problem behaviors irrelevant • Make problem behaviors inefficient • Make problem behaviors ineffective • BSPs should fit the setting where they will be implemented
BSPs (cont’d) • Based on the FBA results, prepare a competing behavior model • view examples • Step 1: Diagram the FBA summary statements • Step 2: Define alternative behaviors & the contingencies associated with those behaviors • Step 3: Select intervention procedures/strategies for: • setting events • predictors/antecedents • consequences • teaching desired behaviors • Step 4: Outline the routines to be established • Step 5: Outline the methods to monitor & evaluate the effectiveness of planned interventions