Process Improvement from a Materials Perspective Solutions looking for problems or Problems looking for solutions?
Process Improvement from a Materials Perspective • Materials utilization • How can processes be improved • Eliminating/Replacing materials • Replacing Solvent with Aqueous Cleaners • Reusing materials • The Army has recently authorized the use of re-refined used motor oil for use in ground equipment • Recycling materials, and • paper waste • Consolidating/eliminating process steps.
Expanding the Relationship • Gather information • Industrial or Manufacturing Directory • SIC code • Sales • Size • Dun & Bradstreet • Company history • Personnel profiles • Financial report
Expanding the Relationship • Made several visits to the facility • Observed what they do • Met the Facility Manager and supervisors • Implemented Several Pollution Prevention Projects • Replaced Solvents with Aqueous Cleaners • Introduced Membrane Filtration on Aqueous Cleaners • Implemented Rag Recycling to Reduce the Volume of Solid Waste
Expanding the Relationship • Trusted • Useful • Cost effective, and • Credible.
Follow Up Call • Bumpers-R-Us Corporation • Mr. Sid E. Ways • Process line manager • This scenario is an example only and is not used to imply that any member of NIST, IMEC, or any other organization affiliated with NIST is not fully capable in the performance of their duties.
Good Job! • Solved another problem • Increased client satisfaction, • Gained more trust and influence, • One more bean to count, and • Big project is on the horizon!!
Follow-Up • 3 months later • Pitch the “Big project” • Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
Solutions Looking for Problems • “If the shoe doesn’t fit - • there’s something wrong with your foot” • Promoting inappropriate changes • Don’t see the whole picture • Don’t understand the problem • Don’t understand the solution • Solving the problem at the source.
Project Opportunity Assessment • Set up a meeting • Reviewed the problem, • Mapped the process, • Found the root cause of the problem, and • Brainstormed a solution as a team.
Coming Up • How to develop a problem statement, • How to map a production process, • How to identify loss reduction opportunities, • How to use a material loss assessment, and • How to present your information.
Next Up • Process Mapping and Root Cause Analysis
“When the map is complete…..the route becomes clear” Ancient Chinese Proverb
Process Analysis Techniques • Problem Definition • Process Mapping • Root Cause Analysis • Site Assessments • Identifying Loss Reduction Opportunities
Problem Definition • Involves defining the… • What? • When? • Where? • Significance
Problem Definition Step 1:What? • What opportunity will you address? • What issue keeps facility manager awake at night? • What is their pain? • What is their passion? • Key tools… • TOP 10 Self-Assessment • Opportunity Prioritization Matrix • Interviews/Surveys • Scrap/reject reports • Functional Assessments
Problem Definition Step 2:When? • When did the problem appear? • Try to pinpoint precise dates/times • Did problem coincide with something recently implemented?
Problem Definition Step 3:Where? • Narrow the boundaries! • Did problem occur on … • One shift? • One activity? • One supplier? • One material? • One machine?
Historical vs. Newly-Emerged Problems Anomaly Historical Reject Level Question: Where is the opportunity!?
Problem Definition Step 4:Significance! • Measure the impact of the problem • Is it important to the company? • Is it defined in terms of the company’s decision maker can understand? • Will the elimination of the problem improve the company’s bottom line?
Problem Definition Summary • Combine the… • What? • When? • Where? • Significance • Develop a problem statement or effect
Initial Problem Statement • NOTE: This is the problem as they PERCEIVE it • May only be a symptom of the actual root cause • Provides insight regarding parameters to monitor in process mapping
Process Mapping • Why should we map a process? • Improve process knowledge and understanding • Identify and correct problem areas • Identify loss reduction opportunities • Determine usage and fate of raw materials and other resources
Three Questions Used in Process Mapping • What happens next? • What are the inputs? • What are the outputs?
Complicating Factors • General vs. Detailed Processes • Ancillary Processes • Intermittent Processes • Process Upsets • Looping Processes • Splitting Processes
Military Root Cause Analysis • Vehicle Maintenance • Repair of Vehicle Sent from Organizational Shop • Stated Problem (according to Environmental Manager): • “Too Much Oily Wastewater is Being Generated”
General Process Map Organizational Shop Transportation to Higher Level Shop Organizational Shop Higher Level Shop
Repair Need Identified by Operator Vehicle Repair Process Vehicle Washed to Identify Source of Problem Repair Verified Vehicle Released to Organizational Unit Vehicle Washed At Shop Parts Ordered Vehicle Transported Back to Unit Transported to Higher Shop For Repair Repair is Made Road Tested Inspected at Higher Shop Vehicle Washed to Check for Leaks
Process loss problem example • Bumper manufacturer • Stamping and electroplating operations • Stated Problem (according to plant manager): • “Electroplating operations can’t keep up with stamping operations”
General Process Map Powder Coating 20,000 units/yr Receiving Stamping Shipping 50,000 units/yr Electroplating 50,000 units/yr 30,000 units/yr
Soak Cleaner (Plans for prewash after stamping) T1 380 sec. T2 Spray Clean Rinse 170 sec. T3 Electro Clean 380 sec. T6 35 sec. Acid HCL Dip T7 Dip 10 sec. T5 Rinse Counterflow Rinse Dip 45 sec. T10 145 sec. Electro Clean T12 Dip 10 sec. Counterflow Rinse T13 40 sec. Acid HCL Dip T14 35 sec. Counterflow rinse T16 170 sec. Rinse Shuttle Electroplating Process(Time Study)
T18 46 min. Semi Brite Ni Plate T21 490 sec. Brite Ni T22 170 sec. Dura Ni (Strike) Rinse Spray T23 45 sec. T17 T20 46 min. 120 sec. Tri Ni Nickel Semi Brite Ni Plate T24 Counterflow Rinses a b c 5 sec. 5 sec. 5 sec. T25 T19 T26 130 sec. Pre-dip 180 sec. 46 min. Deco Cr Semi Brite Ni Plate T27 a b c 35 sec. 35 sec. 35 sec. Counterflow Rinses OR Electroplating Process(Time Study) OR dwell 3 sec.
Root Cause Analysis • Used to establish “cause-and-effect” • Theory - there is a direct cause for a problem • Determine the sources of problems • Personnel • Machine • Method • Material • Management • Environment
Personnel Oriented Problems • Lack of training • Manpower availability • Safety/Industrial hygiene • Labor Relations
Machine Oriented Problems • Antiquated Equipment • Wrong equipment for Application • Under/over sized equipment • Worn out equipment
Method Oriented Problems • Productivity (cycle time) Problems • Bottlenecks • Downtime and tool change time • Wrong SOPs • Lack of measurement • Poor paperwork flow • Delivery problems
Management Oriented Problems • Increased Costs • Poor quality of Parts • Customer relations • Vendor relations • Labor relations
Material Oriented Problems • Too many rejected parts • Excessive cost increases • Too much waste generation • Regulatory problems • Inventory Control Problems • Energy Efficiency • Work in Progress
Environment Oriented Problems • Government Regulations • Competition • Transportation Access • Utility Access
TooMuch Oily Wastewater Is Being Generated Vehicle is Washed After Repair Vehicles Washed Before Repair SOP SOP To Make Sure Repair is Complete So Mechanic Can See Source of Leak So That The Right Parts Are Ordered So the Vehicle Can Be Fixed Right the First Time So the Vehicle Can Be Fixed Right the First Time
Electroplating Can’t Keep Up Not enough capacity Can’t run 2nd line Process takes too long Too many steps WWTP can’t handle it WWTP not big enough Parts don’t get clean (Buffing compound residue on parts) Too much waste to treat Cleaning process inefficient ? Cleaning process inadequate Buffing compound hard to remove Fish WMRC
Soak Cleaner (Plans for prewash after stamping) 3,140 gal 10-12 oz/gal 180° F, pH 14 30 day dump T1 R.O. water rinse ambient temp. 3gpm bleed T2 Spray Clean Rinse T16 Rinse Shuttle 1-3 gpm Electroplating Process(Materials Study) T3 Electro Clean 3,920 gal. caustic NaOH 10-12 oz/gal; 170-180° F Dumped every 45 days T5 Counterflow Rinse 4.1 gpm removes electroclean residue T5a T6 Etches surface; 10-15% HCl dumped every 1-2 weeks Acid HCL Dip T7 6 gpm optimum runs less Rinse T10 2300 gal. dumped every 60 days to T3 Electro Clean T12 Counterflow Rinse 5.4 gpm T12a T13 1,832 gal 10-15% HCL; dumped every 2 weeks to acid dump tanks Acid HCL Dip T14 Counterflow Rinse 5.4 gpm T14a
T17 Semi Brite Ni Plate OR Electroplating Process(Materials Study) T18 Semi Brite Ni Plate OR T19 Semi Brite Ni Plate High sulfur Ni strike 3:59 cycle; 7,250 gal. T20 Tri Ni Nickel T21 Brite Ni 8,700 gal; 4 bays pH = 4.0 2,100 gal, Ni bathdeposits particles (non-conductive) with Ni 3-4 sec.; 64,000 pores/in2 T22 Dura Ni (Strike) dwell 3 sec. Rinse Spray T23 Not functional; will be used to replace dragout & evap. T24 5-10 gpm 1,300 gal each Counterflow Rinses a b c T25 1,832 gal chromic - 202 gal. & sulfuric - minimal .01oz./gal Pre-dip T26 2,620 gal 35-40 oz/gal hex Cr sulfuric acid Deco Cr T27 a b c Counterflow Rinses 5.4 gpm
Electroplating Can’t Keep Up Not enough capacity Can’t run 2nd line Process takes too long Too many steps WWTP can’t handle it WWTP not big enough Parts don’t get clean (Buffing compound residue on parts) Too much waste to treat Cleaning process inefficient Too much metals drag out Cleaning & acid tanks dumped too often Cleaning process inadequate Buffing compound hard to remove Dwell times over plating tanks are too short Tanks become contaminated Cleaning & pickling processes cause contamination Not enough capacity
Identifying Loss Reduction Opportunities • Discuss/challenge sub-causes • Multi-vote to prioritize problems • Generate Loss Reduction Opportunities • Brainstorm ideas • Select & implement best solution(s) • Monitor results • If problem persists, implement alternative solutions
Loss Reduction TechniquesPersonnelOriented Problems • Improve employee training • Improve employee participation • Develop quality circles • Improve safety conditions • Improve employee supervision
Loss Reduction Techniques(Machine Oriented Problems) • Modify existing equipment • Adopt new processes and technology • Redesign/reformulate products • Implement preventative/predictive maintenance • Recycling of by-products and wastes