Workshop Groups Group 1 Talia Tiffany Vahe Michelle Group 2 Sabine Pauline Alec Christina E Group 3 Patrick Lauren Michelle Group 4 Christina A Eric Jacqueline Megan Group 5 Nicole Alex Melanie Hrag Group 6 Christina G Jeanine Sevag Ani
Writers Workshop Discuss as a group: • How did you approach the question? • Were there any specific documents that you had a difficult time with? • How did each use groupings of documents for analysis? • How did you approach point of view? • What types of additional sources or documents did you think would be helpful?
Peer Grading For each essay there are three rubrics: • Each essay is to be graded by all of the members of your group. • Write the name of the grader on the top of each rubric. • Grade the essay according to the rubric On the bottom of the rubric there is a space for comments: • What did the writer did well? • Suggestions for improvement? • Was the essay easy or difficult to grade? How could the writer make the essay easier on the grader?
Chapter 28 The Crisis of the Imperial Order 1900-1929
I. Origins of the Crisis • The Ottoman Empire & The Balkans • Decline of the Ottomans • By the late 19th Century, the Ottoman Empire lagged behind the rest of Europe - economically, technologically and militarily • “sick man of Europe”
I. Origins of the Crisis 2. Territorial losses • Ottomans began losing territory - Macedonia rebelled 1902-03 - Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia in 1908 - Crete merged with Greece in 1909 - Albania gained independence in 1910 • Italy conquered Libya in 1912 • Balkan Wars (1912-13) removed Ottoman presence from Europe
I. Origins of the Crisis 3. Power Vacuum • Decline of Ottomans created instability in the Balkans • Russia saw itself as protector of the Slavic people - Pan-Slavism • England & France saw itself as protector of Christian minorities • Austria-Hungary sought to expand southward
I. Origins of the Crisis 4. Young Turks • Turkish nationalists - Anti-foreigner - Anti-minority • Called for creation on a Constitution • Overthrew the Sultan in 1909 - Reformed police, bureaucracy, and education system • Cracked down on Greek & Armenian minorities • Hired Germany military advisors to update military
Warm Up: What effects did the decline of Ottoman power have on the Balkans?
I. Origins of the Crisis B. Causes of WWI • Nationalism • Nationalism served as a unifying force - Inspired soldiers to march to battle • Nationalism served as a dividing force - In multinational empires, minority groups sought independence
I. Origins of the Crisis 2. Arms Race • Universal conscription led to massive increase in the size of European armies - Armed with weapons of the 2nd industrial revolution • Germany and England competed for the naval supremacy - “Dreadnoughts”, battle ships
I. Origins of the Crisis 3. Alliances • Triple Entente (The Allies) - Britain, France and Russia • Triple Alliance (Central Powers) - Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
I. Origins of the Crisis 4. Strategies • In order to mobilize millions of soldiers, detailed plans were needed • Once war declared, response was automatic
I. Origins of the Crisis 5. Imperialism • Competition for imperial colonies led to increased tensions in Europe
I. Origins of the Crisis 6. The Spark • Serbian nationalist, GavriloPrincip, assassinated the heir to the throne on Austria-Hungary • Franz Ferdinand • Austria declared war on Serbia • Russia mobilized its army - Motivated by Pan-Slavism • France mobilized to support Russia • Germany declared war, attacked France via Belgium as part of von Schlieffen Plan • Britain declared war on Germany
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914,-1918 A. Stalemate 1914-1917 1. Mass Mobilization • Within 48 hours, each nation had millions of soldiers at its command • Of the major powers, only Italy remained neutral
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914,-1918 2. Expectations • The commencement of hostilities was met with joy and enthusiasm by the European public. • Belief that the war would be short - Austro-Prussian War 1866 (7 weeks) • Franco-Prussian War 1870 (7 months)
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914,-1918 3. Beginning of the War • France unsuccessfully attacked Alsace and Lorraine • Germany wanted to avoid fighting on two fronts simultaneously • Von Schlieffen Plan - Use minimal forces to hold Russians and slow French in Alsace and Lorraine - Use main armies to attack France via Belgium - Knock French out of war before British could come to aid
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions, 1914-1918 4. The Western Front • Aug 14-25 French offensive in Alsace was stopped, heavy losses on both sides. • Aug 23- Sept. 3 Germans drove within 30 miles of Paris - Unexpected Belgian resistance - British forces arrived sooner than expected - Russian forces in East made unanticipated advances • Germans pulled troops from assault on Paris to Alsace and Eastern front
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions, 1914-1918 5. Battle of Marne Sept 5-12, 1914 • French launched counteroffensive along Marne River - Saved Paris • Ended in stalemate • Germany held important industrial and agricultural region in Northeastern France, and all of Belgium
I. Origins of the Crisis 6. Defensive War • Technological advances gave defensive forces unexpected strength - Rifles could hit Calvary from far way, Calvary ineffective • Infantry loaded down with equipment, moved slowly • Machine guns could provide defensive cover
I. Origins of the Crisis 7. Trench Warfare • Complex System of: • Defensive Protection (Trenches, pill boxes) • Communication (Telegraphs, telephones) • Transportation (Roads, Railways, Bridges)
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Warm Up: How did technology change the nature of warfare in WWI?
I. Origins of the Crisis 8. War of Attrition • Attempted offensives were stopped reinforcements • Gain a few miles, lose a few hundred thousand soldiers • After 2 years of bloody fighting, the Western Front remained remarkably the same
Verdun - Feb. 1916 • German offensive. • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme - July 1916 • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
I. Origins of the Crisis 9. The Naval War • British Naval Blockade of Germany in North Sea The Battle of Jutland 1916 • Major naval engagement of the war - Only full scale clash of battleships • Attempt by Germany to break the British blockade • Battle was a draw • British blockade remained
I. Origins of the Crisis • Germany submarine blockade of Britain in the Atlantic • Unrestricted submarine warfare - Attacked neutral merchant ships heading to U.K. - Sinking of the Lusitania, killed over a thousand civilians - Angered neutral U.S.
I. Origins of the Crisis 10. New Technology • The technology of the 2nd Industrial Revolution was harnessed for the fighting - Tanks - Submarines - Airplanes • Poison Gas • Machine guns • flame throwers
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Aces of WWI FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Rene PaukFonck, Fr. Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 B. The Home Front & the War Economy • Demand • Total War- All aspects of society participated in the war effort • Large armies & drawn out warfare created huge demand for war goods • Civilians sacrificed to support military. • Worked harder, higher taxes • Rationing • Governments took increased control over economy to maintain war effort
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 2. Allied Civilian Life • Goods rationed • Unemployment vanished • Women played key roll in war effort - Factory jobs - Government bureaucracy - Auxiliary military serves
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 3. German Civilian Life • British blockade created shortages - Fuel and food • German scientist developed synthetic fuel & explosives • “Turnip winter” - 1916 - Limited supply & selection of food - Civilians forced to live on 1,000 calories per day
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 4. Africa • African colonies became a front in the War - German colonies of Togo, S.W. Africa & Cameroon conquered in 1915 • Over a million Africans fought in war • Over 3 million served as porters • Africans paid heavy taxes, were forced to sell crops at low prices
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 5. The United States • Remained neutral until 1917 • Joined the war on the side of the Allies - Businesses made huge profits supplying Allied troops • American civilians supported war effort: - Victory Gardens - War Bonds • African-Americans and Women played major role in increased factory production
II. The Great War & the Russian Revolutions 1914-1918 C. The Ottoman Empire at War • War & Genocide • The Turks entered the war on the side of Germany in 1914 • Hoped to gain land at Russia’s expense • Suspected Armenian population of being pro-Russian - Began deportations of Armenian population - Forced marches • Hundreds of thousands murdered and died from exposure, starvation