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Earth’s Crust

Earth’s Crust

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Earth’s Crust

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  1. Earth’s Crust

  2. Convection currents

  3. Continental drift – idea that continents have moved slowly to their current positions due to convection currents in the mantel. Pangea – the idea that the all land masses on earth were once a single large land mass.

  4. Ocean floor spreading – theory that hot less dense material below Earth’s crust rises toward the surface at the mid-ocean ridges. Then, it flows sideways, carrying the seafloor away from the ridge in both directions. http://geology.com/nsta/divergent-boundary-oceanic.gif Convection current – unequal distribution of heat in the mantel causes a net movement in a circular motion.

  5. The Earth’s CRUST is the outer most part of the Earth’s surface. • Average 32 km thick • Thickest point 70 km (in mountains) • Thinnest point 8 km (under ocean)

  6. Plate tectonic – theory that Earth’s crust and part of the upper mantle are broken into sections called plates. Lithosphere – all of the earth’s crust and part of the upper mantle. http://www.allaboutspace.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth/Inside.shtml Asthenosphere – plastic like layer below the lithosphere. The ridged plates of the lithosphere “float” on the more plastic layer called the asthenosphere.

  7. l

  8. Deformation – The breaking, tilting, and folding of crustal rock due to crustal movement. (three types of forces) • Compression – squeezing of earth’s crust that compacts the rock. Convergent boundary 2. Tension – is the pulling apart of the earth’s crust. Divergent boundary. 3. Shearing – pushes rocks side by side in opposite directions. Transform boundary.

  9. Convergent boundary Divergent boundary Transformation boundary

  10. Rift valley subduction

  11. FAULTS Normal Fault – fault caused by tension stress that moves the hanging wall down relative to the foot wall.

  12. Reverse Fault – fault caused by compression forces where the hanging wall will move up relative to the foot wall.

  13. In Lateral (strike-slip) faulting, the two blocks move either to the left or to the right relative to one another. Strike-slip faults are associated with crustal shear.

  14. Thrust Fault – is formed when compression causes the hanging wall to slide over the foot wall. (almost horizontal movement)

  15. Facts about folds/faults. increased temp. =‘s fold decreased temp =‘s fault increased pressure =‘s fold decreased pressure =‘s fault rock type – brittle =‘s fault rock type – ductile =‘s fold time – greater the time =‘s fold time – less time =‘s fault

  16. Fault block mountain is a mountain created by blocks of rock uplifted by normal faults.

  17. Rift Valley are valleys created when a block of land between two normal faults slide downward.

  18. End of chapter 10

  19. Folds – are bends in rocks without breaking folds have two parts Anticline – upward part of fold syncline – downward part of fold Anticline

  20. Plateau – is a large area of flat land that is raised high above sea level. Usually bordered by cliffs or mountains.

  21. Domes – is the uprising area caused by magma

  22. Floating crust - less dense more dense

  23. A balance exist between the downward force of the crust and the upward force of the mantle called ISOSTASY.