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Holocaust Resistance Movements PowerPoint Presentation
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Holocaust Resistance Movements

Holocaust Resistance Movements

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Holocaust Resistance Movements

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  1. Holocaust Resistance Movements Mr Kelley World war Two

  2. Essential Question What were the holocaust resistance movements and to what extent did they help save lives?

  3. Religious Institutions

  4. POPE PIUS XII • Began indifferentand unhelpful towards the Jews • Extremely influentialHe could influence about 400 million Catholics • Spoke out against Italian racial laws preventing mixed marriages • Did not condemn Kristallnacht

  5. Concordat with Hitler • 1933 Pope Pius signed a concordat with Adolf Hitler • Allowed Catholics to practice freely in Germany • Separated religion and politics • It weakened the Catholic Center Party in Germany, giving Hitler a political advantage over them

  6. POPE PIUS XII • March 1939 Pope Pius XII issued 3,000 visas to European Jews allowing them to flee persecution • When asked to publicly condemn the death camps, Pope Pius XII refused, wanting to remain neutral • He did however privately tell Catholic institutions to hide Jews

  7. POPE PIUS XII • Lent money to help the Jews • Protested in 1944 when Germany invaded Hungary and deported Jews from there • Transferred 6,000 Jewish Bulgarian kids to Palestine • Warned the Allies about Operation Yellow to blow up the British Navy

  8. Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon • Protestant village in Southern France • Sheltered 5,000 Jews • The town hid Jews for four years

  9. Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon • They gave the Jews fake IDs and ration cards • The town educated the Jewish children • Not one Jew hid in the town was taken by Nazis • The Jews were taken from Le Chambon, through French towns and villages, to the Swiss border to safety

  10. ANDRE TROCME • Pastor of Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon • Trocmé hid the first Jew and encouraged the town to aid the Jews as well • The Reformed Church asked Trocmé to stop aiding Jews but he refused • Vichy government then requested Trocmé and his followers to stop but they also refused

  11. These people came here for help and for shelter. I am their shepherd. A shepherd does not forsake his flock. -Andre Trocmé

  12. Le Chambon-sur-lignon • In 1942 the Vichy government arrived in Le Chambon with a list of Jews • Trocmé and the villagers refused to give the government any of the Jews on the list • Trocmé and the villagers were later arrested but released two weeks afterwards • After this incident Trocmé was forced into hiding

  13. Zegota

  14. ZEGOTA • Created after German invasion of Poland • Helped Jews in occupied Poland from 1942-1945 • Founded by people of different backgrounds • Saved Jews from the Ghettos • Funded by the Polish government that was in exile

  15. ZEGOTA • Provided Jews with money, medical attention, forged documents and foster homes for Jewish children • Priest assisted Zegota by giving birth certificates • July 1943 Children’s Bureau was established • Zegota relocated to Milanowek after Warsaw Ghetto Uprising • Saved an estimated 400,000-500,000 Jews

  16. JULIAN GROBELNY • Alias was “Trojan” • Part of the Polish Socialist Party • Elected head of Zegota • Hid the Jews in the most danger in his own home • Hid Jewish children in different institutions • Worked closely with Irena Sendler

  17. IRENA SENDLER I was taught that if a man is drowning, it is irrelevant what is his religion or nationality. One must help him. It is a need of the heart.- Irena Sendler

  18. IRENA SENDLER • Head of the children’s branch of Zegota • Rescued 2,500 Jewish children from the Warsaw Ghetto • Alias was “Jolanta” • After she rescued the children she taught them Christian traditions and behaviors • She recorded the identity of every Jewish child she saved

  19. IRENA SENDLER • October 20, 1943 Irena was arrested • Taken to Pawiak prison • She was tortured and then sentenced to death • She however was not killed and went into hiding

  20. TADEUSZ REK • Lawyer who represented the Polish Popular Party in Warsaw • Joined Zegota in 1943 and became the Vice President • He let many Jews stay temporarily at his home • His apartment was a frequent Zegota meeting place

  21. TADEUSZ REK • He gave various forms of aid to between 40,000 and 50,000 Jews • His wife encouraged family and friends to take in Jews and keep them secretly at their homes • Arrested and sent to Pawiak prison • Then he was sent to Auschwitz

  22. ZOFIA KOSSAK • Before the war Zofia was anti-Semitic • She joined Zegota because she was patriotic towards Poland • Her codename was “Weronika” • She wrote “Protest”, a leaflet defying the Nazis and the current government in Poland Whoever remains silent in the face of murder becomes an accomplice of the murder. He who does not condemn, condones. –Zofia Kossak

  23. ADOLF BERMAN • In 1939 he was the director of the Warsaw branch of the Federation of Associations for the Care of Orphans • He then found the Antifascist Bloc which later became the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB) • Berman was able to move out of the Warsaw Ghetto and pass as an Aryan Pole

  24. ADOLF BERMAN • Berman was the secretary of Zegota • He was a representative to the Jewish National Committee • Berman was able to preserve records from the Warsaw Ghetto • Berman involved Irena Sendler with Zegota by asking for her help to save the children • January 1944 captured by the Poles but was later freed

  25. REDINAND ARCZYNSKI • He was a founding member of Zegota • His alias was “Marek” • He was the Zegota treasurer and the head of the legislative bureau • He brought a lot of the people who harmed Jews to justice

  26. REDINAND ARCZYNSKI • Gave Jews help in various forms such as shelter, medical care, and money • He smuggled food and clothes into the ghettos • He also played a large part in the founding of the Lvov and Cracow branches of Zegota

  27. Wladyslaw Bartoszewski • Born 1922 in Warsaw, Poland • From September 1940- April 1941 he was in Auschwitz

  28. Wladyslaw Bartoszewski • Co-founder of Zegota • He also worked with the Catholic underground, specifically with the FOP from 1942 to 1944 • Received the Righteous Among the Nations Award

  29. German Resistance

  30. OSKAR SCHINDLER • German man, born in Austria-Hungary • Generally a “sinful” man • Participated in black market trading and was able to get his own factory of Jewish workers through his friends • Numerous Jews invested in his factory in return for safety and work

  31. OSKAR SCHINDLER • His factory, where many Jews worked was described as an “Oasis of humanity in a desert of moral torpor” • In his factory, they made defective bullets and other war material for the German army • He moved the factory to the Sudetenland to keep the Jews working there safer


  33. OSKAR SCHINDLER A survivor stated:I don't know what his motives were... But I don't give a damn. What's important is that he saved our lives. Schindler answered this question however after the war: If you saw a dog going to be crushed under a car, wouldn't you help him?

  34. KARL PLAGGE • Major in German army • Member of Nazi party • WWI veteran • At first he agreed with Hitler’s ideas

  35. KARL PLAGGE • He took 1,200 Jews away from the mass-killing areas and used them for forced labor at his own camp • Since he took them from the ghettos, they were less likely to be moved to death camps • Took over 1,000 families from the Wilna Ghetto (which was soon after liquidated) to his camp, HKP

  36. KARL PLAGGE • He gave the Jews work permits that protected them from the SS • However, when Plagge was on leave, the Gestapo came into the camp and killed all of the children • He was then told by the SS that he had to relocate his camp and that he couldn’t take the “skilled workers” with him

  37. KARL PLAGGE • When he was forced to be relocated, he had time to warn all the Jews at his camp • The Jews were able to hide in various places and many of them survived

  38. Help From Asia

  39. CHIUNE SUGIHARA • Chiune Sugihara was the Japanese consul in Kaunas, Lithuania in March 1939 • He saved more than 6,000 Jews – the second most saved during the holocaust • Many Polish refugees had fled into Lithuania after the German invasion • Germany invaded Lithuania on 6/15/40

  40. CHIUNE SUGIHARA • After Germany invaded both Lithuania and Poland, the Soviet Union said that they would let the Jews pass through if they could obtain certain travel documents • In July 1940 all foreign embassies had to leave Lithuania but the Dutch and Japanese consul got extensions • Two Dutch Caribbean Islands didn’t require formal entrance passes

  41. CHIUNE SUGIHARA • Thousands of Jews went to the Japanese consul asking for the Japanese transit visas • Sugihara wired back to the government in Japan for permission to sign these visas • Three times they refused to give him permission • He disobeyed them and from 7/31/40 – 8/28/40 he signed 300 visas a day

  42. Visa issued ByChiune Sugihara

  43. CHIUNE SUGIHARA • On 9/1/40 his extension was up and he had to leave the country • Even as his train was pulling away he still signed the visas through the window • He then gave the stamper for the passports to a Jew who then signed and stamped many other passports

  44. CHIUNE SUGIHARA • The Jews who were able to get the passports made their way via trains through Russia and Japan and arrived safely at the Dutch Islands • Despite his disobedience, the Japanese government still used Sugihara for the remainder of the war but then dismissed him afterwards

  45. FENG SHAN HO • Issued visas to Shanghai to Jews from Austria • Feng-Shan Ho was one of the first diplomats to help Jews • Saved thousands of Jews from 1938-1939

  46. Visas Issued by Feng Shan Ho

  47. PAN JUN SHUN • Took care of Ludmilla, a Jewish child who escaped while being transported to a death camp • Alexandra and Mitrofan Babaeva and Nadezhada helped in raising the child • Continued to care for the girl even after the war • Was the first Chinese man to receive the title Righteous Among the Nations

  48. Warsaw Ghetto Resistance

  49. THE ZOB • Stood for Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa • Led by Mordecai Anielewicz • Created October 1942 at a Ha-Shomer Club meeting • Made by occupants of the Warsaw Ghetto