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Holocaust PowerPoint Presentation

Holocaust

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Holocaust

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  1. Holocaust • The state-sponsored persecution and murder of European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945 • Resulted in the death of 6 million Jews – 2/3 of the European Jewry • Other groups targeted: Roma (gypsies), mentally & physically disabled, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses

  2. Pre-War Anti-Semitism (1933-1939) • Over 400 decrees & regulations restricted the private & public lives of Jews • 1935: Nuremberg laws • Excluded Jews from citizenship • Forbade marriage between Jews and non-Jews • Define Jews by having 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents • 1937: “Aryanization” • Jews required to register property & assets • Slowly lost ownership of these to Germans

  3. Kristallnacht – November 9-10, 1938 • Widespread destruction of Jewish property in Germany, Austria & Sudentenland • Resulted in first mass arrests of Jews • Led to Jewish emigration

  4. Advent of WWII = New Nazi tactics • Ghettos • City districts where Jews were forced to live in miserable conditions • Jews were deported to the ghettos from all over occupied Germany • Nazis set up as a temporary step until they figured out what to do with the Jews • Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto, Poland, 1942

  5. Concentration Camps • First established as forced labor camps for opponents to Nazis and social deviants • With start of war, open more camps and centralize organization • After 1941 invasion of Soviet Union, begin massive killing operations • Final Solution: Authorize implementation of “complete solution of Jewish question” • Open 5 main killing centers – 2.7 million Jews killed in gas chambers

  6. Spiritual Resistance • Preserve Jewish history & communal life • Observe holidays • Run education programs • Publish underground newspapers • Collect & hide Jewish records

  7. Escape & Rescue Efforts • Many escaped the ghettos & hid in the forests • Helped by individuals & resistance groups • Assisted by smugglers & forgers • French town of ChambonsurLignon sheltered 3000-5000 refugees

  8. Armed resistance Ghetto Uprisings Partisans • April 1943, Warsaw ghetto rose up & fought deportations of remaining residents • It took 1 month for Germans to put down the uprising • It inspired further uprisings • Armed groups of Jews who escaped and sabotaged Germans • October 1943, remaining 600 prisoners in camps organized a revolt Prisoner Revolts