Download
chapter 11 the antebellum south n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 11 The Antebellum South PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 11 The Antebellum South

Chapter 11 The Antebellum South

124 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 11 The Antebellum South

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 11The Antebellum South

  2. Southern Economy • “The south grew, but it did not develop” • Expanded and population grew, but still agrarian • Became sensitive about traditional way of life • Center of power shifted from tobacco of north, to cotton of deep south • Short staple cotton + cotton gin = no industry • 5,000 bales in 1820 – 5 million bales in 1860 • Any attempt to commercialize, only served plantations

  3. Southern Dependence on North • Few southerners willing to admit they couldn’t survive without northern industry. • DeBow’s Review: published by B.D. DeBow • magazine advocating southern commercial expansion. • printed in New York because no publisher in New Orleans could handle the volume. • Northern manufacturers advertised in the magazine.

  4. Reasons to Reject Expansion • Hot climate made factories miserable • Already massive profits from cotton, and no competition • Cavalier Culture • Southern whites viewed their society as more refined than rapidly growing North. • chivalrous, traditional, and leisurely • more of a myth than the reality.

  5. Cult of Honor – reflect European Chivalry • Wealthy upper class • Military careers (modern day knights) • The rest of society. • Held the white women in honor and high regard. • Developed strict codes of honor • duels remain legal long after outlawed in the North.

  6. Brooks vs. Sumner • Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) gave speech admonishing slavery. • Compared Sen. Andrew Butler (SC) as a modern day Don Quixote marrying a prostitute and mistaking her for a lady. • Rep. Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew, felt need to defend family honor. • Attacked Sumner at his desk with a cane. • Brooks was viewed as a hero throughout the South

  7. Planter Aristocracy • Fewer than ¼ of Southern people owned slaves. • Most only had 1 or 2. • Poor were dependent on upper class for survival • Aristocracy compared to upper-class lords of Europe. • actually a myth, most deep southern families hadn’t owned land more than a generation. #of Slaves in Mercer Co. = 4,000 #of White farmers in Mercer Co. = 8,000 Plantation owners = 2 ……………………..2,500 slaves farmers own slaves = 1,200……………......1,500 slaves 6,798 farmers ……………………………………..NO SLAVES

  8. Reality of Plantations • Grandeur and extravagant lifestyles - a facade. • Possible for northern established tobacco families • Deep south cotton plantations – highly competitive, difficult to manage, often deep in debt • Struggle to maintain perception made them defensive

  9. Typical White Southern Farmer • Small yeomen farmer, worked side by side with his only slave • Treated the slave well b/c they were expensive • Uneducated, poor, dependent on plantation owners • Supported slavery b/c they needed help from plantations • Irony – would’ve done better if slavery did NOT exist • Few Southerners that rejected slavery: • “Hill People” of the Ozarks in Arkansas, and Appellations in West Virginia • cut off from society, not dependent on plantations • Rejected secession during the war

  10. “Peculiar Institution” • By mid 1800s only a few South American countries and Caribbean islands still had slaves. • Slave Codes: • can’t leave masters’ premises without permission. • not permitted out after dark, or congregate with other slaves except for church. • may NOT strike a white person, not even in self defense. • Whites may not teach slaves to read, write, or arithmetic. • Not Considered a crime if owner kills a slave during punishment • Enforcement left to each owner’s discretion, usually they were lenient.

  11. Slaves’ Perspective vs. Master’s • Most masters only owned a few slaves • Close bonds, masters worked closely with slaves, and made sure they stayed healthy. • Most slaves preferred to live on large plantations. • Shear size provided culture apart from whites and privacy. • Vast majority lived on larger plantations by 1860. • Relationships were much less intimate for the average slave than for the average master.

  12. Plantation Systems • Task System: slaves given a task to perform, free for the day once finished • predominant on rice and sugar plantations • Gang System: Broken into groups run by “Head Drivers” (fellow slaves) or Overseers (poor whites), work until they were satisfied for the day. • far more common.

  13. Women Slaves • Slave women had particularly difficult lives. • Expected to work in fields, then domestic duties also • Single parenting became the norm. • Fathers from other plantations or sold shortly after childbirth. (often by design) • Served as midwives, and basic medical assistance. • Held in high regard within slave communities.

  14. Conditions • Usually better than most factory workers in the North. • Better than peasant laborers in Europe. • Far better than any slaves in Caribbean or S. America • Slave trade was still legal, owners had no incentive to take care of their slaves. • Antebellum south was the only slave population to grow though natural reproduction. • Read pg. 305 regarding hired labor!

  15. Urban Slavery vs. Rural Slavery • Rural plantation slaves were kept isolated. • Rarely, if ever, met free blacks or lower class whites • Urban slaves run errands, accomplish public tasks, hired out, house servants • Could easily mingle with free blacks and lower class whites, almost impossible to keep separate. • Very rare by 1860 – not considered worth the trouble • Usually a status symbol

  16. Slave Resistance • Psychological and emotional toll –yearned for freedom regardless of contentment with owners, feelings of helplessness • Sambo: shuffle feet, head hung low, scratching head, portrayed the ignorant subservient slave but was actually an act. • The Rebel: slave that can never bring themselves to accept or accommodate owners • Revolts were actually very rare - Nat Turner Revolt of 1831 came to fruition, was quickly put down. • Escape rarely succeeded, even after the Underground Railroad, especially deeper south.

  17. Resistance Cont. • The most common form of resistance - passive aggressive. • Intentionally break tools • Refusal to give maximum effort • Losing equipment • Complete tasks improperly • White owners simply mistook this for laziness and never fully understood

  18. Slave Culture • Pidgin: slave language - combination of many African dialects and English – barely audible. • Lasted long after African slave trade ended • Music: slave spirituals - religious elements appease white people, but rhythms and beats reflected African culture. • Privately songs reflected resentment of bondage, and helplessness • Religion: Christianity to appease whites, mixed in elements of voodoo and African Islam. • Family: revolved around extended family kinships, identified more with community as family • Rarely were allowed to know biological families • Constant possibility of being sold