Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Why do you think that plants such as these are essential for most life on Earth? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Why do you think that plants such as these are essential for most life on Earth?

Why do you think that plants such as these are essential for most life on Earth?

223 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Why do you think that plants such as these are essential for most life on Earth?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Why do you think that plants such as these are essential for most life on Earth? • In what major way does the top pair of plants differ from the bottom pair?

  2. Unit Overview – pages 556 - 557 Plants The Diversity of Plants Nonvascular Plants Non-Seed Vascular Plants

  3. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 What is a nonvascular plant? • Nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts and hornworts.

  4. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 What is a nonvascular plant? • Nonvascular plants can only pass materials from one cell to the next.

  5. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Nonvascular plants only have their cell walls to provide support, so they are small, low plants.

  6. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 • Nonvascular plants lack roots, but can obtain water and minerals from their surroundings.

  7. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Alternation of generations • Nonvascular plants can only grow in moist environments because they must have a thin film of water for sperm to reach the egg. • Nonvascular plants produce spores.

  8. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Bryophyta • There are several divisions of nonvascular plants. • The first division you’ll study are the mosses, or bryophytes. • Mosses are small plants with leafy stems.

  9. Adaptations in Bryophyta • The leaves of mosses are usually one cell thick. • Mosses usually grow in dense carpets of hundreds of plants.

  10. Section 22.1 Summary – pages 577 - 580 Adaptations in Hepaticophyta • Another division of nonvascular plants is the liverworts, or hepaticophytes. • Liverworts are small plants that usually grow in clumps or masses in moist habitats.

  11. Adaptations in Anthocerophyta • Anthocerophytes are the smallest division of nonvascular plants, currently consisting of only about 100 species. • Also known as hornworts, these nonvascular plants are similar to liverworts in several respects.

  12. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 What is a non-seed vascular plant? • The obvious difference between a vascular and a nonvascular plant is the presence of vascular tissue. • Ferns, club mosses and horsetails are non-seed vascular plants. • Ferns, club mosses and horsetails reproduce using spores and still need to grow in moist surroundings.

  13. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Fern Structures • In most ferns, the main stem is underground. • A rhizome is the thick, underground stem of a fern Fronds Rhizome Root

  14. Fern Structures • The leaves of a fern are called fronds and grow upward from the rhizome. • Spores develop on the underside of mature fronds.

  15. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Lycophyta • Lycophytes are commonly called club mosses and spike mosses.

  16. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Arthrophyta • Arthrophytes, or horsetails, represent a second group of ancient vascular plants.

  17. Section 22.2 Summary – pages 581 - 587 Adaptations in Pterophyta • Ferns range in size from a few meters tall, like tree ferns, to small, floating plants that are only a few centimeters in diameter.

  18. Section 1 Check Question 1 The only plants that have a dominant gametophyte generation are the _______. A. vascular plants B. flowering plants C. nonvascular plants D. ferns The answer is C.

  19. Section 1 Check Question 2 The rhizoid in mosses has a function comparable to _______. A. The flower in flowering plants B. The cone in conifers C. The root in vascular plants D. The leaf in cycads

  20. Section 1 Check The answer is C. Rhizoids anchor the stems of mosses to the soil as roots do in other plants.

  21. Section 2 Check Question 1 Egg Using the figure, which structure would you assume the sporophyte grows from? Archegonium Prothallus Sperm Rhizoids Antheridium

  22. Section 2 Check The answer is the archegonium. Sperm travel from the antheridium to the archegonium where they unite with an egg and form a zygote. The zygote grows into the sporophyte. Egg Archegonium Prothallus Sperm Rhizoids Antheridium

  23. Section 2 Check Question 2 A compact cluster of spore-bearing leaves is called a _______. A. thallus C. prothallus B. rhizoid D. strobilus The answer is D.

  24. How are these cones similar?2. What is their function?

  25. Unit Overview – pages 556 - 557 Plants The Diversity of Plants That Characteristics of Seed Plants

  26. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 What is a seed plant? • All seed plants have vascular tissue, use seed to reproduce and have leaves, stems and roots. • Seed plants do not need water in their environment to reproduce.

  27. Section 21.1 Summary – pages 559 - 563 Reproductive strategies • A seed is a plant organ that contains an embryo, along with a food supply, and is covered by a protective coat. • Embryo • Seed Coat • Food Supply

  28. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Fertilization and reproduction • The embryo is a fertilized egg that the young plant develops from • Embryos of seed plants include one or more cotyledons (seed leaves).

  29. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Fertilization and reproduction • Cotyledons store or absorb food for the developing embryo. Cotyledon Seed coat Cotyledons

  30. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Advantages of seeds • The seed coat is the outer covering of the seed. • Ex. “skins” on peanuts, beans, etc. Embryo Seed coat Food supply • The scattering of seeds is called seed dispersal.

  31. Seed Dispersal • Some seeds are spiny and hitch rids on the fur of animals. • Some seeds rely on oceans, rivers and streams of dispersal. • The wind carries some seeds through the air. • Some plants shoot their seeds out when their pods explode. • Some rely on animals to eat them and pass them out later. Ex. acorn or apple

  32. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 What are gymnosperms? • Gymnosperms are plants whose seeds are not protected by a fruit. • Many gymnosperms have needlelike or scalelike leaves. • Most gymnosperms are trees, a few are shrubs or vines.

  33. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Cycads • Grow mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. • Look like palm trees with cones.

  34. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Gingko • All ginkgoes are cultivated trees, and they are not known to exist in the wild. • Only one species exists. • Ginkgoes often are planted in urban areas because they tolerate smog and pollution.

  35. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Gnetophytes • Found only in the hot, dry deserts of South Africa, deserts of the western United States, and the tropical rain forests. • The plants that grow in South Africa grow close to the ground, have large tuberous roots, and may live 1000 years.

  36. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 • Cone-bearing plants • Cones are either male or female • Some trees produce both cones, some only produce one • Largest and most diverse group of gymnosperms • Most are evergreen Confiers

  37. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Deciduous trees lose their leaves • A few conifersare deciduous. • Deciduous plantsdrop all their leaves each fall or when water is scarce or unavailable.

  38. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Diversity of seed plants • Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, produce seeds enclosed within a fruit. • The fruit is the ripened ovary of a flower.

  39. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Diversity of seed plants • The fruit provides protection for seeds and aids in seed dispersal. • The Anthophyta division contains all species of flowering plants.

  40. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 The structure of a flower • The flower contains the reproductive structures that the fruit develops from.

  41. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants produce spores • The male structure is the stamen, which consists of a filament and an anther where the pollen grains are produced. anther stamen filament

  42. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants produce spores • The pollen grain is the male gametophyte that includes sperm cells, nutrients, and a protective outer covering. anther stamen filament

  43. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants produce spores • The female structure is the pistil, which consists of the stigma, style, and ovary where the ovule is produced. anther stigma stamen filament style pistil ovary ovule

  44. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Seed plants produce spores • The ovule is the structure that contains the female gametophyte, which produces the egg cell. anther stigma stamen filament style pistil ovary ovule

  45. Section 22.3 Summary – pages 588 - 597 Moncots and dicots • The division Anthophyta is divided into two classes: monocotyledons and dicotyledons. • Monocotyledonshave one seed leaf. • Dicotyledons have two seed leaves.

  46. Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 The structure of roots • Root hairs Xylem and phloem are located in the center of the root. • Xylem • Phloem The arrangement of xylem and phloem tissues accounts for one of the major differences between monocots and dicots. • Pericycle • Endodermis • Apical meristem • Root cap

  47. Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 The structure of roots In dicot roots, the xylem forms a central star-shaped mass with phloem cells between the rays of the star.

  48. The structure of roots • Monocot roots usually have strands of xylem that alternate with strands of phloem.

  49. Section 23.2 Summary – pages 612-621 Internal structure In most dicots, xylem and phloem are in a circle of vascular bundles that form a ring in the cortex. • Vascular bundle

  50. Internal structure • The vascular bundles of most monocots are scattered throughout the stem. • Vascular bundles