Virgil and Ovid 拉丁語系 Latin
地穴寓言 the allegory of cave中間很多層意義，昨天沒有說完整，請參考維基百科:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegory_of_the_Cave 柏拉圖之地穴寓言是講述一個由柏拉圖陳述用於暗喻未受過真正教育、不願面對真實的世界的的人們
亞歷山大圖書館 亞歷山大圖書館（英文：Library of Alexandria），又稱古亞歷山大圖書館，位於埃及亞歷山卓，在歷史上曾經是世界上最大的圖書館。由埃及托勒密王朝的國王托勒密一世在西元前3世紀所建造，後來慘遭火災，因而被摧毀。2000多年前它到底是什麼模樣無人知曉，因為它連一個石塊實物也沒有留下，今人只能從歷史文獻的零星記載中了解，而大量考古發掘似乎也無確鑿線索。而在2002年於原址附近重新建立的新亞歷山大圖書館則是地中海沿岸主要的圖書館及文化中心之一。它同時代表著對亞歷山大圖書館的紀念及振興學術文化的嘗試。
Week 17: final exam 33 questions [fill-in the blanks; from weekly journal, weekly quotes, and lecture notes (PPT) ] All in English
Term-paper/ week 18 (1)集結每周寫的小組討論與反思週記，可增加自我反省本學期學習的歷程等。 (2)撰寫一篇短文，探討與倫理學或美學相關的主題，可從本學期閱讀的文本和討論的題目中再延伸發揮。(中文約2000字， 1000 words in English) (3)自由創作: 詩，散文，小說，漫畫，劇本，音樂，攝影…. (中英文皆可，自由發揮!) (4)合訂成小冊，編目錄。
VIRGIL70-19 B.C. PubliusVirgiliusMaro was born in northern Italy, and very little is known about his life. These were followed by the Georgics, a didactic poem on farming, in four books, which many critics consider his finest work. TheAeneid, the Roman epic, was left unfinished at his death.
Aeneas/ Aeneid Like all the Latin poets, Virgil built on the solid foundations of his Greek predecessors. The story of Aeneas, the Trojan prince who came to Italy and whose descendants founded Rome, combines the themes of the Odyssey (the wanderer in search of home) and the Iliad (the hero in battle). Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VZt3no1-5-g&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeeHS8sDbqI&feature=related
Virgil: Aeneid 王焕生：古罗马文学史(217-55) 最重要的三部作品：《牧歌》、《農事詩》、Aeneid 2. 《牧歌》共有十首，模仿希臘牧歌傳統，同時也是羅馬社會生活的真實反映。 3. 《農事詩》全詩兩千多行，分為四卷，每卷敘述一個農業問題。第一卷敘述穀物種植、農具、一年四季農作的畫分。第二卷敘述園林管理。第三卷敘述畜牧。第四卷談養蜂。
Virgil 4. Virgil把安靜的農業勞作、優美的自然景色和充滿怡人樂趣的農村生活與喧囂、嘈雜、繁忙的城市生活相對照。 5. 在三、四卷中直接對屋大維進行歌頌。 6. 《埃涅阿斯紀》的基本主旨：借用古代神話傳說，歌頌羅馬國家，歌頌奧古斯都統治。 7. Aeneas的主要任務：前往義大利建立新的城邦。羅馬的使命是建立對世界的統治。
Virgil 8. Virgil顯然接受了晚期斯多葛哲學的影響，相信命運和預言。 9. 一至六卷模仿Odyssey，七至十二卷類似Iliad。 10. in medias res (in the middle of things): 故事開始時Aeneas已飄泊了七年。Virgil在創作這部史詩時，有意識地對荷馬史詩進行多方面的模仿，同時又試圖創作出一部富有自己特色的史詩作品。
Virgil及Homer史詩的最大差異： Homer: 對希臘民族往日的歷史進行敘述，敘述客觀、平靜，寓詩人的傾向於敘述過程中的視角、對比等手法之中。敘事風格樸實、明快。 Virgil: 以一種強烈的愛國熱情和自豪感敘述自己民族令人緬懷的形成歷史，贊頌光輝的當代，詩人與史詩中的人物及現實具有更為緊密的聯繫。敘事風格則顯得雕琢、憂鬱。
Virgil的歷史地位： a. 中世紀時特別受重視，一方面是由於教會牽強附會地認為Virgil在自己的牧歌中預言了耶穌的誕生，另一方面則是由於Virgil的詩歌為當時的神秘主義提供了許多可以進行寓意性理解的內容。 b. 中世紀詩人Dante在《神曲》中把Virgil作為他遊歷地獄和煉獄的引路人。 c. Voltaire將Virgil置於Homer之上。 d. 德國詩人歌德也很推崇Virgil，稱Virgil是他的老師。
Aeneas and Achilles Virgil borrows Homeric turns of phrase, similes, sentiments, and whole incidents; his Aeneas, like Achilles, sacrifices prisoners to the shade of a friend and, like Odysseus, descends alive to the world of the dead.
Aeneas, Achilles, and Odysseus But unlike Achilles, Aeneas does not satisfy the great passion of his life, nor, like Odysseus, does he find a home and peace. The personal objectives of both of Homer’s heroes are sacrificed by Aeneas for a greater objective. His mission, imposed on him by the gods, is to found a city, from which, in the fullness of time, will spring the Roman state.
the prototype of the ideal Roman ruler Homer presents us in the Iliad with the tragic pattern of the individual will, Achilles’ wrath. But Aeneas is more than an individual. He is the prototype of the ideal Roman ruler; his qualities are the devotion to duty and the seriousness of purpose that were to give the Mediterranean world two centuries of ordered government after Augustus.
A solitary founder When he mentions his father and son, neither of whom he will see again, he emphasizes for us the loneliness of his short career. Odysseus has a father, wife, and son, and his heroic efforts are directed toward reestablishing himself in his proper context, that home in which he will be no longer a man in a world of magic and terror but a man in an organized and continuous community.
State v.s. Individuality He knows that the Roman ideal of devotion to duty has another side, the suppression of many aspects of the personality, and that the man who wins and uses power must sacrifice much of himself, must live a life that, compared with that of Achilles or Odysseus, is constricted.
Dido In Virgil’s poem Aeneas betrays the great passion of his life, his love for Dido, queen of Carthage. He does it reluctantly, but nevertheless he leaves her, and the full realization of what he has lost comes to him only when he meets her ghost in the world below.
Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido/Pierre-Narcisse Guerin, 1815Musee du Louvre, Paris
Great Epic It is and expression of the famous Virgilian sadness that informs every line of the Aeneid and that makes a poem that was in its historical context a command performance into the great epic that has dominated Western literature ever since.
Virgil: Official epic of the new order Virgil had written what Augustus wanted to be the “official” epic of the new order, which was to be seen as the fulfillment of a history that began with Aeneas’s journey from Troy to Italy. The Aeneid, for all its innovations, was an epic in the traditional style: it focused on the deeds of a single hero, and it exemplified and transmitted its culture’s dominant values.
維吉爾要為羅馬建立光榮的歷史 維吉爾要為羅馬建立光榮的歷史，把羅馬的帝王編成英雄後裔，約在公元前25年，開始他的傑作。他把不同來源的傳說，集合在一起，為凱撒奧古斯都(Augustus Caesar)找一個祖先。奧古斯都欣然同意。詩人就努力以赴。 凱撒奧古斯都，是文武兼資的君王；那時的領袖們不少是文盲，他自己卻能寫作。因愛文學，迫不及待，寫信給詩人，要先看部分的未完成稿。 維吉爾的伊尼德，於公元前19年完成；不過，詩人還不滿意，計畫去特洛伊和希臘實地考察，作最後修改，以求完美。不幸，他隨侍凱撒征伐海外，染病逝世。我們今天所有的，只是初稿，否則會更美。
特洛伊人的後裔 受到荷馬和維吉爾的啟發，第九世紀以後，英國人和法國人，也想要沾光，聲稱是特洛伊人的後裔。英國人造出的野史，說他們的先祖布盧士(Brutus)，是來自特洛伊的後代；稱倫敦為“新特洛伊”(Troia Nova, New Troy)。 法國也不甘落後，說他們與特洛伊遺民有關，不讓意大利人專美於前。不過，他們都沒有維吉爾一樣的詩人，所以不足以名世。但法國作曲家柏遼茲(Louis Hector Berlioz)名中的Louis，是他父親的名字；Hector則是特洛伊的英雄；柏遼茲的歌劇特洛伊(Les Troyens)，取材埃涅阿斯和娣朵的愛情悲劇，更膾炙人口，有助於法國人的歸宗熱。
“Preparation of agricultural utensils. “ by JerzySiemiginowski-Eleuter (1660–1711)
OVID 43 B.C. - A.D. 17
Julius Caesar’s assassination (44 BCE) Born in the year after Julius Caesar’s assassination, Ovid did not know the time of civil war, when no one’s property, or life, was safe.
a versifier of genius Like Catullus and Virgil, he was profoundly influenced by the learned and polished works of the Greek Alexandrian period, but like his predecessors he translated their example into his personal idiom and used it for his own purposes.
Elegance, wit, and precision Elegance, wit, and precision remained the hallmarks of Ovid’s poetry throughout his long and productive career, and his way of telling stories was extraordinary for its subtlety and its depth of psychological understanding.
Influence His influence on the poets and artists of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and beyond was massive, second only, if at all, to Virgil’s. The early years of Ovid’s manhood were marked by rapid literary and social success in the brilliant society of a capital intent on enjoying the peace and prosperity inaugurated by Augustus.
Amores The Amores, or “Love Affairs,” unabashed chronicles of a Roman Don Juan, was his first publication. It was soon followed by the Art of Love, a handbook of seduction (originally circulated as books 1 and 2, for men; book 3, for women, was added by popular request).
奧維德變形記 作者：奧維德 原文作者：PubliusOvidiusNaso 譯者：呂健忠 出版社：書林出版有限公司 出版日期：2008年09月01日 語言：繁體中文ISBN：9789574452477 裝訂：平裝
AndromedenPerseusliberat: p.57Perseus rescues Andromeda from the sea monster
Metamorphoses anti-Aeneid But it can be seen as a critical response to Virgil, even an. Ovid produced a series of storiesusing the Alexandrian form of theepyllion, or “miniature epic,” and he strung these together into a long narrative offifteenbooks.
43 BC~AD 17: Ovid’s Metamorphoses《變形記》 羅馬詩人奧維德(Ovid)著重故事的趣味性和心理的變化的刻畫。將看不 見的心理起伏變化用可見的、誇張但有關聯的身體外形變化來描寫。他 的作品是後來西方藝術家最喜歡的神話素材之一。 http://mail.tku.edu.tw/kiss7445/KissHomePage/pdf/03_Metamorphoses-Book01.pdf
Greek Roman myths He proceeds through Greek myth to stories of early Rome and so to his own time, including, as the final metamorphoses, the ascension of the murdered Julius Caesar to the heavens in the form of a star and the divine promise that Augustus too, far in the future, will become a god.
the apotheosis of Julius Caesar A woodcut from Virgil Solis illustrating the apotheosis of Julius Caesar, the final event of the poem (XV.745–850). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamorphoses Next picture
Metamorphoses Section I--Book I–Book II (end, line 875): The Divine Comedy Section II--Book III–Book VI, 400: The Avenging Gods Section III--Book VI, 401–Book XI (end, line 795): Section IV---Book XII–Book XV (end, line 879): Rome and the Deified Ruler