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Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

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Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

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  1. Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course The Election of 1800, Jefferson’s Presidency, and the Louisiana Purchase

  2. The presidential election of 1800 was a bitter struggle between Jefferson and Adams. The Democratic-Republicans and Federalists hurled wild charges at one another. Adams was thought of as a tool for the rich who wanted to turn the executive branch into a monarchy. Jefferson was thought of as a dangerous supporter of France and an atheist. Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, but he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives had to decide who would be president. Hamilton persuaded Federalists to cast empty ballots leading to Jefferson winning the election. This also led to an interesting event. The Election of 1800

  3. Aaron Burr was so embarrassed by Hamilton’s maneuvering that he challenged him to a duel as a way to gain political publicity and credit. On July 11, 1804, the men met to settle their differences in a duel with pistols. Hamilton drew the first shot, but fired into the air. Burr shot Hamilton in the stomach, killing him. Burr was charged with murder, but fled the country before going on trial. The remainder of his life was filled with failures and mystery. He eventually ended up fleeing to Europe after a failed attempt to annex Mexico, and later returning to NY. The Duel: Burr & Hamilton

  4. When Jefferson entered office Federalists controlled most governmental positions. What did Jefferson do to help restore the balance between Federalists? Jefferson wanted to bring back the republican spirit of 1776 and to do so he replaced several Federalists with Democratic-Republicans. By 1803, he had balanced the two-party’s control. Jefferson also simplified the presidency… how? He acted as a common man by doing subtle acts such as walking to his inauguration (as opposed to riding in a carriage) and he dressed plainly and did not wear a powdered wig. Jefferson’s Presidency To simplify things more, he reduced the navy, cut internal taxes, and reduced the B.U.S’s power. He believed in free trade.

  5. Jefferson was the first president to reside in the new nation’s capital in the District of Columbia. The city was still quite primitive at the time, with dirt roads and a backwoods feel. The move of the capital signified a shift in politics as Federalists and New England began losing its hold on the federal government and the South’s importance grew. Jefferson and the two presidents that followed- Madison and Monroe- were all from Virginia. Why did the Federalists begin losing power in the U.S.? Jefferson’s political moderation, Federalists neglect of the common people, and western farmers voting Democratic-Republican since they appealed to the farmer all led to a decline in Federalists support following Adams administration. Southern Dominance of Politics

  6. When Adams left office, he assured that the judicial branch would keep a federalist majority. How did he manage to do this? The Judiciary Act of 1801 increased the number of federal judges by 16, and Adams appointed Federalists to these posts. They were called midnight judges due to their appointment late at night on Adams last day in office. Angered by these late appointments, Jefferson did not honor all of them since the papers were not delivered before Adams left office. Marshall & The Supreme Court This led to one of the most important court cases in U.S. history.

  7. William Marbury was one of these judges that did not receive his appointment, and James Madison was Jefferson’s Secretary of State who was in charge of delivering the papers. Marbury attempted to sue since the Judiciary Act of 1789 required the Supreme Court to order that the papers be delivered. Chief Justice Marshall called this act unconstitutional since the Constitution did not empower the Supreme Court to issue such orders. This simple act affirmed the principle of judicial review, which was the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. Marbury v. Madison

  8. Pioneers continued expanding westward during Jefferson’s presidency. Between 1800 and 1810, the population of Ohio grew from 45,000 to 231,000. In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte persuaded Spain to return the Louisiana Territory to France. The U.S. was alarmed with the possibility of a more powerful nation to their west and decided to send Monroe to France. Monroe arrived to find that France, after losing Haiti to a revolution, no longer wanted an American empire and offered it to the U.S. for $15 million. The United States Expands West Jefferson was concerned about the purchase, but it passed in the Senate.

  9. The Louisiana Purchase included all the land drained by the western tributaries of the Mississippi River and more than doubled the size of the United States. Eager to explore the new territory, Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition called the Corps of Discovery from St. Louis to the Pacific. He, in turn, appointed William Clark to be his second in command. They received help from Sacajawea, a Native American woman who acted as a guide and interpreter. The expedition took 2 years and 4 months to complete and recorded invaluable information for future settlers. Louisiana and Louis & Clark

  10. HW: SPNotes 6.4, also complete any missed work and all of Chapter 6 (if not done already). • Leave the room better than you found it and have a great day! Reminders