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  1. RADIOACTIVE A Tale of Love and Fallout

  2. Pgs. 288-289 • 1. Afterreading Loïe Fuller´s “LectureonRadium,” write in yourownwords her viewonthetwotypes of magicthatexist in theworld and thedifferencesbetweenthem. • There are twokinds of magic. Oneiscreatedbymanwherethings are magicaltoallthoseexcepttheonethat are a result of natural causes that are manipulatedbyhim. • Theotherisnature´smagicthat no manunderstands. Once they are understoodbyman, they are no longermagic.

  3. 2. Wherewas Pierre born and howwas he raised? In youropinion, whatwashisearlychildhoodlike? • He wasborn in Paris. Pierre´sfatherwas a physicianwhoworked in a lab and probablyencouraged Pierre to observe hissurroundings. Pierre turnedouttobe a childprodigy and earned a universitydegreebytheage of 16.

  4. 3. Wherewas Marya born and howwassheraised? In youropinion, whatwas her earlychildhoodlike? • Marya wasborn in PolandwhenitwasunderRussian rule. Marya had a difficultchildhoodbecauseshelost her sister and her mother at an earlyage. Shestudied so muchshehad a nervousbreakdown and hadtobesenttothe country torest.

  5. 4. Whatcircumstancesencouraged Pierre torejectlove? Howdid Pierre viewlove? • Pierre´sfirstlovedied and he vowednevertofall in loveagain. He feltlovewastoodistractingbecause a loverfindsit natural tosacrificethe time of a geniusfor an hour of love. He didnotwantanythingtoderailhisscientificambition.

  6. 5. Whydidmarya decide tobecome a governess? Whywasthis a tragicexperiencefor her? • Shebecame a governesstosavemoneytopay her tuitiontostudy in Paris at theSorbonne, her dream. She and theeldest son of thefamilywhomsheworkedforbecameinterested in eachotherwhentheyoungmancame home onvacation. Thefamilywashorrified and demanded he break off therelationshipbecausetheyfeltshewasnot of their social class. He did and Marya wasverydepressed and heartbroken.

  7. 6. Marya changed her nameforuniversity. Describe Marie´s living conditions in Paris and whatshemanagedtoachieveundertheseconditions. Whatdoesthistellusabout her? • Marie probablyhadlittlemoney and lived in a garretthatwasverycold in thewinter. Eventhoughlifewasdifficult, itgave her a sense of liberty and independence. Shecompletedonedegree in mathematics and one in physics. Shewas a focused and resilient individual.

  8. 7. Howdoesthesubject of Pierre´s doctoral thesisparallelthemeetingbetween Pierre and Marie? • Pierre´s doctoral thesisisaboutmagnetism and discoveringhowthepowers of attraction in variousmaterialschangewhenthey are heated up to extreme temperatures. Thisexperimentationtakes place duringthesame time that he meets Marie and theyexperience a powerfulattraction—they are drawntogether, muchlikemagnets.

  9. 8. Describe theCuriepoint in yourownwords. Howdidthisimportantscientificdiscoveryaffecttheworldwelive in today? • Itis a link betweenheat and magnetism. Themagneticproperties of a substancechangedependingonthetemperaturethey are exposedto. Itisused in studyingplatetectonics, treatinghypothermia, measuringthecaffeine in beverages, and understandingextraterrestrialmagneticfields.

  10. 9. Why do youthink Pierre brokehisvow and fell in lovewith Marie? • Pierre saw a womanwhowouldnotdistracthimformhisstudies, butrather inspire, encourage and accompanyhim in hisscientificambitions.

  11. 10. WhydidPierre´ssuggestion of movingtoPolandhelp Marie decide tostay in Paris withhim? • Pierre wantedto share a lifewith her consecratedentirelytoscientificresearch. Marie haddoubts and missed her family in Poland. He offered her friendship, partnership, employment, lodging and eventriedtomake her feelguilty. He found her stubborn. Finally, he offeredtomovetoPoland. Marie agreedtostay in Paris and theyweremarried.

  12. 11. Whocapturedthefirst X-ray? Whywasthis an importantscientificdiscovery? • WilhelmRöntgen. Itallowedthehuman interior tobephotographed.

  13. 12. Accordingtowhatyouhaveread, whatisyourunderstanding of radioactivity? • Atomswithunstablenucleidecomposeintoatomswithstablenuclei. Thisprocess of decompositionisknown as Radioactivity. Theparticlesreleased are calledradioactiveenergy.

  14. Pgs. 296-297 • DiscoveringPolonium • Because of polonium, pitchblende´sradioactivitywas more powerfulthanhadeverbeenobserved in anyknownsubstance. • Byestablishingthatradioactivitywas an atomicproperty, shehaddeterminedthatitcouldbeusedtosearchfor new elements. Poloniumprovedthatradioactivityis an atomicproperty. • Marie namedit “polonium,” in honor of her nativePoland. • Poloniumwouldbeused as a poison, as a neutralizerforstaticcling and as a triggeron nuclear weapons.

  15. DiscoveringRadium • Afterfouryears of steady labor, fourhundredtons of water and fortytons of corrosivechemicals, theymanagedtoextractonetenth of a gram of radiumchloride. • Radiumwas an instantcommercial hit. • Thereseemed no endtopotentialapplications, somemystical, somepractical, manyappealingtoboth impulses at once. • Itwasalsotouted as a replacementforelectriclighting.

  16. Pgs. 298-299 • 1. Chooseonescientificdiscoverymentioned in thetextthattook place at theturn of the 20th century and in yourownwords describe the positive and negativeeffectsthatthisdiscovery has hadonsociety. • Electricity • Radio • Thetelegraph • The X-ray • Radioactivity

  17. 2. Describe theSpiritualistmovement in yourownwords. • Thepublicwasseducedwiththe idea of contactingthedivinethroughghosts and spirits. Itattractedleadingthinkers and artists. Pierre wasveryinterested and analyzed data from a séance as thoughitwere an experiment and he and theotherparticipantspreparedtheséanceleaving no roomfortrickery.

  18. 3. Why do youthinktheSpiritualistmovementwasseductiveforsociety? Why do youthinkpeoplewanted (and want in general) tomakecontactwiththedivine? • Withthedivine, maybetoknowwhat comes afterdeath. More so people are interested in contactingtheirlovedonesthathavepassedaway.

  19. Pgs. 306, Ex. 4

  20. PG. 308-309 1. What does Pierre Curie discover about radium when it is placed on the skin for ten hours? What does this discovery make him question? Pierre discovers that it destroys healthy skin tissue and it occurs to him that if it has the ability to destroy healthy skin tissue, it could then destroy diseased tissue and in that way cure diseases such as cancer

  21. 2. In yourownwords, describe Curiethérapie. • YOUR ANSWER

  22. 3. Why was 1903 an important year for Marie Curie and for women in France? • This year marked the ceremony where Marie Curie received her doctorate. She was the firstwoman in France to receive such an honor and it indicated a step forward in terms of education for women in France and the world, as well as a personal achievement for her own studies.

  23. 4. Why were Marie and Pierre Curie awarded the Nobel Prize? • Their joint efforts and scientific research enabled them to both unleash and influence the radiation phenomena that changed the face of the 20th century and science during that time. They were awarded this prize for their work in this area.

  24. 5. What tragedy stopped Marie from traveling to Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize? Do you think this tragedy is linked with the powers of radium? Why or why not? • Marie suffered a miscarriage and she and Pierre were both very ill and weak. It seemed that radium was “corroding their bones, straining their breathing, burning their skin,” which would imply that it could be linked with Marie’s tragedy and that the exposure to radium was the reason she lost the baby.

  25. 6. Š Why do you think society, and women in particular, questioned how Marie handled both parenthood and a career? • YOUR ANSWER

  26. 7. Why was the birth of J. Robert Oppenheimer included in this biography? • J. Robert Oppenheimer was known as the “father of the atomic bomb.” He was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project, which was the research and development program that produced the first atomic bomb.

  27. 8. Š In 1943, why do you think scientists, such as Irving S. Lowen, were concerned that the Germans would produce an atomic weapon before them? • TheUnitedStateswas at warwiththeGermans. An atomicweaposwould mean massdestruction and total control and power in Germanhands.

  28. 9. Why do youthinktheauthorincludesthesidestory of Irving S. Lowen? • Youranswer.

  29. 10. Whosucceeded in buildingthefirstatomicbomb and wherewasitdetonated? • TheUnitedStatessucceeded in buildingthefirstatomicbomb and itwasdetonatedover Heroshima, Japan

  30. 11. Š Sadae Kasaoka was a child in Hiroshima in 1945. What are her memories of the dreadful day when the atomic bomb was detonated? • Sadae remembers her initial feeling of being safe when the “all-clear” siren sounded to indicate no enemy planes. Then, she remembers an explosion, the sky turning red, and the scene of destruction and death around her.

  31. 12. How did Sadae’s father die? How does Sadae illustrate her father’s injuries in the book? • Sadae’s father’s body was burned from the outside in and she only recognized him because of his voice. His body turned black and his skin peeled back, leaving the muscle exposed. Sadae uses black cutouts to illustrate her father’s wounds.

  32. 13. After reading Sadae Kasaoka’s recollection of the atomic bomb experience, what do you think about this scientific discovery? • Youropinion