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Communication and Information Technology

Communication and Information Technology

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Communication and Information Technology

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  1. Communication and Information Technology Chapter Eleven

  2. Communication The transfer and understanding of meaning. • Interpersonal communication—between two or more people. • Organizational communication—all the patterns, networks, and systems of communication within an organization.

  3. Functions of Communication • Control member behavior • Formally through guidelines and policies. • Informally through peer pressure. • Motivation • Clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and how to do better. • Emotional expression • Share frustrations and feelings of satisfaction. • Fulfillment of social needs. • Information

  4. Interpersonal Communication

  5. Interpersonal Communication Process Receiver Message Medium Decoding Encoding Sender Message Noise Feedback

  6. Four Influences on Encoding Effectiveness • Sender’s skills (verbal, written) • Sender’s attitudes (pre-existing ideas) • Sender’s knowledge about the subject • Social-cultural system (cultural beliefs and values)

  7. Message • Written document, oral speech, and gestures and facial expressions. • Affected by symbols used to transfer meaning (words, pictures, numbers). • Affected by the content of the message. • Affected by the arrangement of symbols and content.

  8. Medium • Channel chosen to communicate the message. • Face-to-face conversation, group meeting, email, telephone, voicemail, memo, report • Appropriateness of chosen channel.

  9. Influences on Decoding • Receiver’s skills (reading, listening) • Receiver’s attitudes (pre-existing ideas) • Receiver’s knowledge about the subject • Social-cultural system (cultural beliefs and values)

  10. Feedback Loop Returns the message to the sender and provides a check on whether understanding has been achieved.

  11. Face-to-face Telephone Voicemail Group meetings Formal presentations Memos Email Postal mail Fax Publications Bulletin boards Audio/videotapes Hot lines Computer conference Teleconference Videoconference Some Methods of Communicating

  12. Evaluating Various Communication Methods • Feedback—How quickly can the receiver respond to the message? • Complexity capacity—Can the method effectively process complex messages? • Breadth potential—How many different messages can be delivered by this method? • Confidentiality—Will the messages be received only by those intended? • Encoding ease—Can the sender easily and quickly use this channel?

  13. Evaluating Various Communication Methods (continued…) • Decoding ease—Can receiver easily and quickly decode messages? • Time-space constraint—Do senders and receivers need to communicate at the same time and in the same space? • Cost—How much does it cost? • Interpersonal warmth—How well does this method convey interpersonal warmth?

  14. Evaluating Various Communication Methods (continued…) • Formality—Does this method have the needed amount of formality? • Scan ability—Can the message be easily scanned for relevant info? • Time of consumption—Does the sender or receiver exercise the most control over when the message is dealt with?

  15. Team Activity Evaluate Skype as a communication method for eBay users.

  16. Interpersonal Communication Process Receiver Message Medium Decoding Encoding Sender Message Noise Feedback

  17. Nonverbal Communication • Body language—Gestures, facial configurations, and other body movements that convey meaning. • Verbal intonation—An emphasis given to a word or phrases that conveys meaning.

  18. Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication • Filtering—Deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more (or less) favorable to the receiver. • Emotions—How a receiver feels when a message is received. • Information overload—The information exceeds our capacity to process it. • Defensiveness—Response to feeling threatened. • Language and jargon

  19. Overcoming Barriers • Use feedback • Simplify language • Constrain emotions • Watch nonverbal cues • Listen actively

  20. Active Listening • Listening for full meaning without making premature judgments or interpretations. • Listening is active; hearing is passive. • Minds wander because the average person speaks 125 to 200 wpm; average listener comprehends 400 wpm.

  21. Active Listening (continued….) Don’t over-talk Avoid interrupting speaker Be empathetic Paraphrase Make eye contact Active Listening Avoid distracting actions or gestures Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Ask questions

  22. Organizational Communication

  23. Formal Versus Informal • Formal communication—follows the official chain of command or is required to do one’s job. • Informal communication—not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy.

  24. Direction of Communication Flow • Downward Communication • Upward Communication • Lateral Communication • Diagonal Communication

  25. Downward Communication • Flows downward from managers to employees. • Used to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees. • Job descriptions, goals, policies and procedures, feedback, problems. • Can take place through many of the communication methods.

  26. Upward Communication • Flows upward from employees to managers. • Used to provide progress reports, advise about problems, indicate levels of job satisfaction and feelings about other personnel and the overall organization. • Employee-prepared performance reports, suggestion boxes, grievance procedures, conversations, and informal group sessions. • Corporate culture significantly impacts effectiveness.

  27. Lateral Communication • Takes place among employees on the same level within the organization. • Potential for problems when not combined with upward communication.

  28. Diagonal Communication • Cuts across both work areas and organizational levels. • Potential for problems when not combined with upward communication.

  29. Communication Networks • The variety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication.

  30. Three Common Organizational Communication Networks

  31. Grapevine • The informal organizational communication network. • Identifies issues that employees consider important or anxiety producing. • Acts as a filter and feedback mechanism.

  32. Managing the Grapevine • Understand what information is being passed, how information seems to flow, and which individuals are key conduits. • Keep tabs on information flowing on the grapevine. • Use grapevine to disseminate important information. • Communicate openly and honestly with employees to minimize the negative consequences of rumors.