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Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular Skeleton

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  1. AppendicularSkeleton The Upper Limbs

  2. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle • Shoulder Girdle (aka Pectoral Girdle) contains two bones: clavicle and scapula • Clavicle makes up the collarbone • Attaches to manubrium medially (sternal end) at the sternoclavicular joint • Attaches to scapula laterally (acromial end) at acromioclavicular joint • Serves to push arm back from thoracic cage and helps prevent shoulder dislocation

  3. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle Anterior View Superior View

  4. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle • The Scapulae are the shoulder blades • Attached to clavicles, but held loosely in place by muscles • Triangular shape with three sides (Superior border, Medial border, and Lateral border) and three angles (Superior angle, Lateral angle, and Inferior angle) • Suprascapular notch on superior border allows nerves to pass over scapula • Spine is ridge on top half of posterior side of scapula • Lateral end of spine is Acromion process • Coracoid process is inferior and anterior to acromion • Acromion and coracoid processes make the superior border of the Glenoid cavity (the socket for the arm)

  5. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle Posterior View Anterior View

  6. TheUpperLimbs – Arm • The arm consists of one long bone—the Humerus • The rounded Head of the humerus fits in the glenoid cavity of the scapula • Lateral to the head are the Greater and Lesser tubercles, which serve as sites of muscle attachment • Partway down the bone is the Deltoid tuberosity for the deltoid (shoulder) muscle to attach • The Radial groove, which goes by the deltoid tuberosity, marks the path of the radial nerve • The distal end includes the Trochlea and Capitulum that articulate with the bones of the forearm • The Coronoid and Olecranon fossae are depressions that allow the forearm bone Ulna to move when bending and extending the elbow

  7. TheUpperLimbs – Arm Anterior View – Right Arm Posterior View – Right Arm

  8. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm • The Forearm includes two bones--the Radius and the Ulna • The Forearm bones articulate at both ends by radioulnar joints • The bones are connected by interosseous membrane • The radius is the lateral bone in the anatomical position (same side as thumb) • The flattened head forms a joint with the capitulum of the humerus • Below the head, on the anterior side is the Radial tuberosity where the bicep muscle attaches

  9. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm • The ulna is the medial bone in the anatomical position • On the proximal end are the Olecranon and Coronoid processes which articulate with the fossae of the humerus • In between the processes is the Trochlear notch that glides along the trochlea of the humerus

  10. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm Anterior View – Right Arm Posterior View – Right Arm

  11. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm Posterior View – Right Arm Anterior View – Right Arm

  12. TheUpperLimbs – Hand • The hand consists of the Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges • The carpals make up the wrist • The wrist, or carpus, is made of 8 short bones that are lined up in 2 irregular rows • The carpal bones are bound tightly by ligaments that allow minimal movement • The 5 metacarpal bones make up the palm • The phalanges are the finger bones • 14 bones total • Bones are labeled Proximal, Middle, and Distal for each finger (thumb only has proximal and distal as there are only two bones)

  13. TheUpperLimbs – Hand