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# INTRODUCTION TO STATIC ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION TO STATIC ANALYSIS. Reference Manual Chapter 9. CHAPTER 9 - STATIC ANALYSIS. ● Single pile design issues ● Group design issues ● Special design considerations ● Additional design and construction considerations.

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## INTRODUCTION TO STATIC ANALYSIS

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1. INTRODUCTION TO STATIC ANALYSIS Reference Manual Chapter 9

2. CHAPTER 9 - STATIC ANALYSIS ●Single pile design issues ●Group design issues ●Special design considerations ●Additional design and construction considerations

3. STATIC ANALYSIS METHODS Static analysis methods and computer solutions are used to: ●Calculate pile length for loads ●Determine number of piles ●Determine most cost effective pile type ●Calculate foundation settlement ●Calculate performance under uplift and lateral loads

4. STATIC ANALYSIS METHODS Static analysis methods and computer solutions are an integral part of the design process. Static analysis methods are necessary to determine the most cost effective pile type. For a given pile type: - calculate capacity - determine pile length Bid Quantity - determine number of piles

5. STATIC ANALYSIS METHODS Foundation designer must know design loads and performance requirements. Many static analysis methods are available. - methods in manual are relatively simple - methods provide reasonable agreement with full scale tests - other more sophisticated methods could be used Designer should fully know the basis for, limitations of, and applicability of a chosen method.

6. BASICS OF STATIC ANALYSIS Static capacity is the sum of the soil/rock resistances along the pile shaft and at the pile toe. Static analyses are performed to determine ultimate pile capacity and the pile group response to applied loads. The ultimate capacity of a pile and pile group is the smaller of the soil rock medium to support the pile loads or the structural capacity of the piles.

7. ULTIMATE CAPACITY Qu = (Design Load x FS) + “other” “Other” could be the resistance provided by scourable soil “Other” could be the resistance provided by Liquefiable soil “Other” is soil resistance at the time of driving not present later during the design life of the pile

8. TWO STATIC ANALYSIS ARE OFTEN REQUIRED First analysis with scourable soil removed, this will give us required pile length for the given ultimate capacity. Second analysis with scourable soil in place and with pile length from first analysis, this will give us our ultimate static resistance at time of driving Liquefaction ?

9. LOAD TRANSFER The ultimate pile capacity is typically expressed as the sum of the shaft and toe resistances: Qu = Rs + Rt This may also be expressed in terms of unit resistances: Qu = fs As + qt At The above equations assume that the ultimate shaft and toe resistances are simultaneously developed.

10. LOADTRANSFER Qu Axial Load vs Depth Soil Resistance vs Depth Rs = 0 Rs Rt Rt Uniform Rt Rs Triangular Rt Rs

11. STUDENT EXERCISE #1 Figure 9.7 on page 12 shows the effect of water table location on effective stresses. Low water table results in higher effective stresses, higher shear strength, and therefore higher driving resistances

12. DESIGN SOIL STRENGTH PARAMETERS Most of the static analysis methods in cohesionless soils use the soil friction angle determined from laboratory tests or SPT N values. In coarse granular deposits, the soil friction angle should be chosen conservatively. What does this mean ??

13. DESIGN SOIL STRENGTH PARAMETERS For a cost effective design with any static analysis method, the foundation designer must consider time dependent soil strength changes.

14. FACTOR OF SAFETY SELECTION Historically, the range in factor of safety has depended upon the reliability of a particular static analysis method with consideration of : ●Level of confidence in the input parameters ●Variability of soil and rock ●Method of static analysis ●Effects of, and consistency of proposed pile installation method ●Level of construction monitoring

15. FACTORS OF SAFETY The factor of safety used in a static analysis should be based on the construction control method specified. 9-14

16. Static Analysis- Single Piles Methods for estimating static resistance of soils

17. STATIC CAPACITY OF PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS

18. F  N Cohesionless Soils, Drained Strength Normal Force, N F = N μ Friction Force, F μ = coefficient of friction between material 1 and material 2 1 2 Tan () = F/N F = N TAN () phi= angle such that TAN () is coefficient of friction between material 1 and material 2 Soil on Soil, we use  Soil on Pile, we use δ

19. Experience N Part Theory Part Experience FHWA 9-19

20. 9-19

21. Nordlund Data Base Timber, H-piles, Closed-end Pipe, Monotube, Raymond Step-Taper Pile Types Pile Sizes Pile Loads Pile widths of 250 – 500 mm (10 - 20 in) Ultimate pile capacities of 350 -2700 kN (40 -300 tons) Nordlund Method tends to overpredict capacity of piles greater than 600 mm (24 in) 9-25

22. Nordlund Method Considers: 1. The friction angle of the soil. 2. The friction angle of the sliding surface. 3. The taper of the pile. 4. The effective unit weight of the soil. 5. The pile length. 6. The minimum pile perimeter. 7. The volume of soil displaced. 9-25

23. 9-27

24. Qu = (KδCFpd(sinδ)CdD) + (αtN’qAtpt) RS RT NordlundMethod For a pile of uniform cross section (=0) and embedded length D, driven in soil layers of the same effective unit weight and friction angle, the Nordlund equation becomes:

25. Nordlund Shaft Resistance • K= coefficient of lateral earth pressure • CF = correction factor for K when  ≠  • pd = effective overburden pressure at center of layer • = friction angle between pile and soil Cd = pile perimeter D = embedded pile length Figures 9.11 - 9.14 Figure 9.15 Figure 9.10

26. Nordlund Toe Resistance RT = T N’q pT AT Lesser of RT = qL AT T= dimensionless factor N’q = bearing capacity factor AT = pile toe area pT = effective overburden pressure at pile toe ≤ 150 kPa qL = limiting unit toe resistance Figure 9.16a Figure 9.16b Figure 9.17

27. Nordlund Method Ru = RS + RT and Qa = RU / FS FS based on construction control method as in 9-14

28. Nordlund Method Procedure Steps 1 through 6 are for computing shaft resistance and steps 7 through 9 are for computing the pile toe resistance STEP 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the  angle for each layer • Construct po diagram using procedure described in Section 9.4. • Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Figure 4.4 from Chapter 4 and obtain corrected SPT N' values. Delineate soil profile into layers based on corrected SPT N' values. • Determine  angle for each layer from laboratory tests or in-situ data. • In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data, determine the average corrected SPT N' value, N', for each soil layer and estimate  angle from Table 4-5 in Chapter 4. 9-28

29. STATIC CAPACITY OF PILES IN COHESIVE SOILS 9-42

30. F = zero c N Cohesive Soils, Undrained Strength F = Friction resistance ; N = Normal force (stress) C is independent of overburden pressures c = cohesion, stickiness, soil / soil a = adhesion, stickiness, soil / pile

31. FHWA 9-43

32. Tomlinson or α-Method Unit Shaft Resistance, fs: fs = ca = αcu Where: ca = adhesion (Figure 9.18) α = empirical adhesion factor (Figure 9.19) 9-42

33. Tomlinson or α-Method Shaft Resistance, Rs: Rs = fs As Where: As = pile surface area in layer (pile perimeter x length) H piles use “box” area – 4 sides, pg 45

34. D = distance from ground surface to bottom of clay layer or pile toe, whichever is less Concrete, Timber, Corrugated Steel Piles Smooth Steel Piles b = Pile Diameter Tomlinson or α-Method (US) Figure 9.18

35. Tomlinson or α-Method Sand or Sandy Gravels D Stiff Clay b

36. Tomlinson or α-Method (US) D = distance into stiff clay layer Figure 9.19b b = Pile Diameter 9-48

37. Tomlinson or α-Method Soft Clay D Stiff Clay b

38. Tomlinson or α-Method (US) D = distance into stiff clay layer Figure 9.19b b = Pile Diameter 9-48

39. Tomlinson or α-Method D Stiff Clay b

40. Tomlinson or α-Method (US) D = distance into stiff clay layer b = Pile Diameter 9-48 Figure 9.19b

41. Tomlinson or α-Method Unit Toe Resistance, qt: qt = cu Nc Where: cu = undrained shear strength of the soil at pile toe Nc = dimensionless bearing capacity factor (9 for deep foundations)

42. Tomlinson or α-Method Toe Resistance, Rt: Rt = qt At The toe resistance in cohesive soils is sometimes ignored since the movement required to mobilize the toe resistance is several times greater than the movement required to mobilize the shaft resistance.

43. Tomlinson or α-Method Ru = RS + RT and Qa = RU / FS

44. STUDENT EXERCISE #2 Use the α-Method described in Section 9.7.1.2a and the Nordlund Method described in Section 9.7.1.1c to calculate the ultimate pile capacity and the allowable design load for a 12.75 inch O.D. closed end pipe pile driven into the soil profile described below. The trial pile length for the calculation is 63 feet below the bottom of pile cap excavation which extends 3 feet below grade. The pipe pile has a pile-soil surface area of 3.38 ft2/ft and a pile toe area of 0.89 ft2. Use Figure 9.18 to calculate the shaft resistance in the clay layer. The pile volume is 0.89 ft3/ft. The effective overburden at 56 feet, the midpoint of the pile shaft in the sand layer is 3.73 ksf, and the effective overburden pressure at the pile toe is 4.31 ksf. Remember, the soil strengths provided are unconfined compression test results (cu = qu / 2).

45. 3 ft • Silty Clay • = 127 lbs / ft3 qu = 5.46 ksf Set-up Factor = 1.75 46 ft • Dense, Silty F-M Sand • = 120 lbs / ft3  = 35˚ Set-up Factor = 1.0 20 ft Soil Profile

46. Solution • We will discuss this solution during the DRIVEN workshop (ie steps 1-9) STEP 10 Qu = Rs + Rt = 1465 + 410 = 1875 kN

47. METHODS BASED ON CPT DATA Pages 9-65 through 9-80 Nottingham and Schmertmann Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussees (LPC) Elsami and Fellenius

48. UPLIFT CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILES pg 9-81 Increasingly important design consideration Sources of uplift loads include seismic events, vessel impact, debris loading and cofferdam dewatering. The design uplift load may be taken as 1/3 the ultimate shaft resistance from a static analysis.

49. STATIC ANALYSIS – SINGLE PILESLATERAL CAPACITY METHODS Reference Manual Chapter 9.7.3 9-82

50. Lateral Capacity of Single Piles • Potential sources of lateral loads include vehicle acceleration & braking, wind loads, wave loading, debris loading, ice forces, vessel impact, lateral earth pressures, slope movements, and seismic events. • These loads can be of the same magnitude as axial compression loads.

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