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Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

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  1. Biotechnology Part II. Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA

  2. Cloned Cats

  3. Content Standards • 5a.Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein. • BI5. c. Students know how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. • 5e.* Students know how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.

  4. Objectives: SWBAT • explain the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and proteins. • predict the physical characteristics of an organism based on its genetic make up. • understand the general pathway by which ribosomes make proteins. • understand how altering an organisms genetic make-up changes the proteins the organism produces.

  5. Genetics Review • Genes code for proteins (transcription and translation) • Proteins-make-up physical characteristics • Changes in the DNA sequence will affect the genetic code (mutations) • If the genetic code is changed then a protein can be changed • This can change an organisms’ physical characteristics

  6. How is Biotechnology a part of your life? • Medical research • Consumer products (clothing) • Forensic Science (crime scene investigation) • Maury (paternity tests) • Genetically modified foods (you eat them on a daily basis)

  7. What is Biotechnology? • Bio=life • Technology=usage and knowledge of tools and crafts • Biotechnology- technology that uses biological systems, living organisms, or products made from living organisms to make or modify products or processes for specific use

  8. What is genetic engineering? • Altering genes to produce a protein • Changing of an organism’s DNA to give the organism new traits • Transgenic organisms-has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome • Uses-medication and genetically modified crops

  9. What are plasmids and restriction enzymes? • BacterialPlasmids-circular pieces of DNA, found in bacteria • Restriction enzymes-enzymes that cut DNA at specific sites • Restriction sites-sections of DNA recognized by restriction enzymes as the place to “cut” the DNA (BamH I, Hind III )

  10. How are recombinant DNA molecules produced? • Recombinant DNA-DNA sequence that is produced from combining DNA sequences, contains more than one organisms genes • RE-used to cut out desired gene from DNA • Plasmids are cut with same RE • Plasmid opens and gene is added to plasmid • Sticky ends of DNA are bonded together (ligation)

  11. Recombinant E.coli plasmid

  12. Discosoma sp (sea anemone)

  13. E.coli

  14. restriction analysis of pKAN-R and pARA pKAN-R 5408 bp BamH I rfp 702 bp pARA 4058 bp Hind III BamH I Hind III 40 bp

  15. BamH I sticky end Hind III sticky end Hind III sticky end BamH I sticky end ligation of pKAN-R/pARA restriction fragments

  16. Summary Questions • What are some beneficial uses of transgenic organisms? • How are recombinant DNA molecules produced? (describe this process in detail)