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Byzantines and Slavs

Byzantines and Slavs

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Byzantines and Slavs

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  1. Byzantines and Slavs Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

  2. The New Rome • AD 395—the Roman Empire was formally split into the Roman Empire in the West and the Byzantine Empire in the East • The Greeks made up most of the Byzantine Empire’s population • The Byzantine Empire included • The Balkan Peninsula • Asia Minor • Syria • Egypt

  3. The capital of the Byzantine Empire was Constantinople • The city was located where Europe and Asia meet • Constantinople overlooks the Bosporus and Dardanelles—2 very important waterways • Control over the 2 waterways allowed the city to control trade between the east and west

  4. Constantinople’s location also helped to protect the city from attack • Water on 3 sides • Triple walls surrounded the city • Chains were placed across the straits to keep unwanted ships out of Constantinople’s harbors

  5. Byzantine Culture • When the Roman Empire fell in the west, the Byzantine Empire adopted Rome’s power • Constantinople became known as the “New Rome” • Many wealthy families from Rome migrated to Constantinople when the Germanic tribes invade the west

  6. The early emperors of the Byzantine empire spoke Latin, but most of the empire’s people spoke Greek and practiced Greek culture • Over time, the Byzantine Emperors began to adopt the Greek language and customs to be more like the people

  7. A new form of Christianity is adopted by the Byzantine Empire—Eastern Orthodoxy • The empire also was a mixture of Greek, Roman, and Persian cultures

  8. Emperor Justinian • Justinian ruled at the height of the Byzantine Empire • Nickname—”Emperor who never sleeps” • Justinian was very hard working

  9. Emperor Justinian

  10. Justinian wanted to reform the legal system of the empire • He gathered 10 scholars to collect & reorganize the old Roman Laws • The scholars created a new law code—Corpus of Civil Law (Justinian’s Code)

  11. Justinian wanted to bring the old Roman Empire back to full strength • AD 533—he set out to re-conquer Italy, North Africa, and Spain—all lands controlled by Germanic tribes • By 554, he had reclaimed the old Roman Empire

  12. The wars to reclaim the old empire were very costly for Justinian • The economic weakness strained the Byzantine Empire’s border protection • The Persians were nearly able to take over the Byzantines • After Justinian’s death, the Germanic tribes reclaimed the lands that they had lost to Justinian • The later Byzantine emperors could not afford to hold on to the western lands

  13. Theodora—Justinian’s Wife • Justinian’s wife—Theodora—played a major role in the success of Justinian and his reign • She was an “actress” before her marriage to the emperor • She participated in government

  14. Theodora wanted to improve the social standing of women in the empire • She got Justinian to pass a law allowing women to own land equal in value to what they had brought into a marriage • AD 532: Theodora helped to save Justinian’s throne • A tax revolt occurred in Constantinople that threatened to topple Justinian off of the throne • Justinian’s advisors told him to flee the city—they wanted his throne • Theodora advised her husband to stay and fight • He stayed and put down the revolt—increasing his power over the empire

  15. Conflict over Religion • Byzantine emperors had strong ties to the Church • Most of the people saw the emperor as Christ’s representative on earth • After AD 400, Byzantine emperors were crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople

  16. The emperors pledged to defend the Church • Emperors had the power to appoint Church officials • Religious arguments did arise between the people, the emperor, and the Patriarch of Constantinople

  17. AD 700s—a major controversy arose over the issue of icons—religious images • Some wanted the icons to be removed, while others saw a need for icons to be in churches

  18. Those against icons based their idea on the Old Testament teachings of the 10 Commandments—”No false idols” • Those in favor of icons said the icons stressed symbolism in the Church

  19. AD 726—the Byzantine emperor Leo III ordered all of the empire’s icons to be removed • Those in favor of Leo’s idea—removing icons from the churches—were called iconoclasts

  20. Not everyone agreed with Leo III • Many high Church officials disagreed with the emperor • The Church in Rome did not agree with Leo III—further increasing tensions between the Church in Rome and the Church in Constantinople

  21. The Pope in Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople struggled over who had more power • The Patriarch of Constantinople refused to see the pope as the supreme power in the Church • Both differed over religious doctrine

  22. New churches were constructed in the Balkans • Both men began to fight over who would control the churches

  23. AD 700s—the situation worsened between the 2 positions • The Lombards—a Germanic group—invaded Italy in the 700s • The Byzantine Emperor refused to help the Pope in Rome • The Pope turned to another Germanic group for help—the Franks—a group of Germanic Catholics

  24. The Franks helped to drive the Lombards out of Italy • The leader of the Franks—Pepin the Short—was crowned “emperor” by the Pope • This crowning caused a greater rift between the east and west • The Byzantine emperor was the only person who could make someone else emperor

  25. AD 1054—the Church in Rome and the Church in Constantinople had developed different doctrines, political ambitions, and geographical differences • The Church will be permanently split • West—Roman Catholic Church • East—Eastern Orthodox Church

  26. Byzantine Civilization & Culture • While the Western empire was falling, the Eastern empire was flourishing • The east preserved a lot of the classical culture while the west lost nearly all of its classical culture • Greek and Roman philosophy • Roman politics • Christian theology

  27. The Eastern empire also had its own forms of art • The empire also helped the Eastern Orthodox Church spread into eastern Europe

  28. Society in the Byzantine Empire was divided into a hierarchy • Byzantine society was flexible—people could easily move from class to class

  29. Byzantine Family • Family was the center of the social life • The Church and government supported marriage • Divorce was difficult to get • The Church allowed only 1 remarriage

  30. Before Justinian, women were to live in seclusion—away from men • Special rooms were set aside for women in the homes and churches • Justinian increased some rights for women—ownership of land, etc. • Women could become educated

  31. Byzantine Economy • Most of the empire’s people were farmers, herders, or laborers • Commerce and trade were alive in Constantinople • Goods from Asia and Europe flowed into Constantinople (crossroads of trade between Europe and Asia)

  32. The empire’s major industry was the weaving of silk • Silk was brought to the empire by 2 Orthodox monks who stole silk worm eggs from China

  33. Silk Silk Worm Cocoons Silk Worms

  34. Byzantine Art • The subject of most Byzantine art was usually religion • Icons were popular forms of art • Mosaics were also very popular • Religious scholars created illuminated manuscripts—artistic lettering and illustrations

  35. Byzantine Education • AD 850—the University of Constantinople was created and supported by the government • The school trained scholars and lawyers • The Eastern Orthodox Church also created schools • Trained priests and theologians

  36. The people in the empire began to study • Medicine • Law • Philosophy • Math • Geometry • Astronomy • Grammar • music

  37. Literature in the empire focused on salvation of the soul and obedience to God • The Byzantines helped spread the classics to the world • The most important job of Byzantine scholars—the preservation and copying of ancient Greek and Roman works • Literature • Science • Law • philosophy

  38. Spread of Christianity • Many missionaries were sent out of the empire to spread the Eastern Orthodox faith • By spreading religion, the missionaries also spread Byzantine culture and learning

  39. Two very important Byzantine missionaries helped spread Eastern Orthodoxy to the Slavs of Eastern Europe—Cyrill and Methodius(brothers) • The brothers believed the Slavic people would better accept Eastern Orthodoxy if it were delivered in the Slavs’ own language

  40. AD 860—Cyrill created an alphabet for the Slavic people—the Cyrillic Alphabet • The Cyrillic Alphabet is still used by Russian and other Slavic nations today

  41. Decline and Fall of the Empire • The Byzantine empire had been suffering attacks from invaders • Germanic Lombards • Slavs • Avars • Bulgars • Persians • Arabs

  42. AD 565—Justinian dies and the Lombards take Italy • The Avars took the northern part of the Byzantine Empire • Slavs take the Balkan Peninsula • Persians attack the Byzantines from the east

  43. AD 626—the Slavs were attempting an invasion of Constantinople • The Slavs were defeated, but the city was vulnerable to attack from outsiders

  44. The real threat to the empire came from the Arab Muslims • The Muslims were out to spread Islam and make money • By the AD 630s—the Arabs had taken Syria, Palestine, Persia, and Parts of North Africa • The Byzantines were unable to regain the land lost to the Arabs

  45. AD 1071—the Seljuk Turks (a group of Arab Muslims) began to move closer to Constantinople • The Byzantine emperor ask the Roman Catholic Pope for help in defending Christianity from the Muslim invaders • The Pope called on Western Europe to help • Western European forces went to Palestine to fight the Muslims--Crusades

  46. The Western Europeans saw the Crusades as a way to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims, not a way of helping the Byzantine Empire • AD 1204—Western Crusaders attacked Constantinople • They burned and looted the city • The Western Europeans created a new empire in Constantinople