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The Endless Frontier in Science and Technology: Role of the United States and Purdue

The Endless Frontier in Science and Technology: Role of the United States and Purdue

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The Endless Frontier in Science and Technology: Role of the United States and Purdue

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  1. The Endless Frontier in Science and Technology:Role of the United States and Purdue October 1, 2007 Charles O. Rutledge, Ph.D. Vice President for Research Pankaj Sharma, Ph.D. Associate Director, Discovery Park

  2. My visit to China

  3. Outline • Evolution of Science, Technology, and Policy • Pre-War, During War, Post-war • Current Infrastructure • Think Tanks, Funding Agencies, National Labs, Regulatory Agencies, Associations, Foundations, Corporations, Donors • Purdue • Past, Present, Future

  4. Pre-World War II (1787-1940) • 1787: The Constitutional Convention • 1807: Survey of Coast • 1862: The Department of Agriculture and the Land Grant College Act • 1870: United States Weather Service • 1879: U.S. Geological Survey • 1887: National Institutes of Health • 1916: Naval Research Laboratory • 1931: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory • 1937: National Cancer Institute George Washington 1st U.S. President 1789-1797 Abraham Lincoln 16th U.S. President 1861-1865

  5. World War II • 1940-1941National Defense Research Committee and Office of Scientific Research and Defense • 1940-1945Manhattan Project National Defense Research Committee 1st Official Meeting on July 2, 1940

  6. Moving Forward in the Post-war Era November 1944: President Roosevelt’s letter to Dr. Vannevar Bush asked the following: • What scientific contributions have been made during the war? • What can be done now in the war of science against disease? • What can the government do to aid research activities? • Can an effective program be proposed for the discovery and development of scientific talent in American youth? Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd U.S. President1933-1945

  7. Moving Forward in the Post-war Era July 1945: Dr. Vannevar Bush provided the following recommendations: Scientific contributions • Penicillin, radar, better agricultural products, jobs in new industries (radio, air conditioning, rayon, synthetic fibers/rubber, plastics) • More abundant food supply, better living, more leisure, longer life, and better health War of science against disease • Extend financial support for basic medical research in medical schools and universities. Aid for research activities • More and better scientific research is essential for our goal of full employment. • Basic research should be strengthened by use of public funds. • Create science advisory board to advise executive/legislative branches of government. • Allow deduction of R&D expenditures for industry research. • Promote international flow of scientific information. Developing scientific talent • For every boy or girl shall know that, if s/he shows that s/he has what it takes, the sky is the limit. • Remove barriers for receiving higher education. • Provide reasonable number of scholarships and fellowships for advanced training and fundamental research. • Create a National Research Foundation. Dr. Vannevar Bush

  8. Post-World War II • 1946: Office of Naval Research • 1946: Department of Energy • 1947: National Laboratories • 1950: National Science Foundation • 1954: President’s Science Advisory Committee • 1980: Bayh-Dole Act • 1989: End of the Cold War • 1989-2000: Steps Toward Interdisciplinary Research Birch Bayh II U.S. Senator from Indiana 1963-1981 Bob Dole U.S. Senator from Kansas 1969-1996

  9. Recent Trends (2000 – today) Challenges Driving Interdisciplinary Research • The inherent complexity of Nature and Society • The drive to explore basic research problems at the interfaces of disciplines • The need to solve societal problems • The stimulus of generative technologies

  10. Policy combined with infrastructure provides an endless frontier for science and technology. Science, Technology, and Policy An infrastructure enables us to undertake challenges and explore new avenues. Endless frontier of science and technology Infrastructure Policy

  11. Infrastructure: Think Tanks The National Academies Advisors to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine • National Academy of Sciences (1863) • National Research Council (1916) • National Academy of Engineering (1964) • Institute of Medicine (1970)

  12. Infrastructure: Universities France Córdova Purdue University’s 11th President • Purdue • MIT • Harvard • Stanford • Berkeley • Cornell • many others

  13. Infrastructure: Funding Agencies • National Science Foundation • National Institutes of Health • United States Department of Agriculture • Department of Energy • Department of Defense • Department of Transportation • Environmental Protection Agency • Department of Health and Human Services • Department of Education • Department of Commerce • Department of Homeland Security • National Aeronautics and Space Administration • United States Agency for International Development Chuck Conner Acting Head, USDA

  14. Infrastructure: Department of Energy (DOE) National Labs • Idaho National Laboratory between Arco and Idaho Falls, Idaho • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratoryin Batavia, Illinois • National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California • Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico • Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee • National Energy Technology Laboratory in Albany, Oregon; Fairbanks, Alaska; Morgantown, West Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Tulsa, Oklahoma • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington • Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Livermore, California

  15. Infrastructure: DOE Technology Centers • Ames Laboratory in Ames, Iowa • New Brunswick Laboratory in Argonne National Laboratory • Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education in Oak Ridge, Tennessee • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey • Radiological & Environmental Sciences Laboratory • Savannah River Ecology Laboratory • Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in Menlo Park, California • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia

  16. Infrastructure: Regulatory Agencies • US Patent and Trademark Office(USPTO) • US Food and Drug Administration • US Environmental Protection Agency Headquarters of USPTO Office Alexandria, Virginia

  17. Infrastructure: Associations • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics • Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers • Association of American Medical Colleges • Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology • American Association for the Advancement of Science • American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy • American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists • American Physical Society • American Chemical Society • American Geophysical Society Charles Rutledge President 1996-1997 American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Leah Jamieson President 2006-Current Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers

  18. Infrastructure: Foundations • Regenstrief Foundation • Lilly Endowment, Inc. • Gates Foundation • Keck Foundation • Rockefeller Foundation Samuel Nathan Regenstrief (1910-1988)

  19. Infrastructure: Corporations • Eli Lilly and Company • Roche Diagnostics • DowAgro Sciences • Zimmer • Cook Biotech • Bio Analytical Systems Inc. Elli Lilly and Company Headquarters, Indianapolis

  20. Infrastructure: Others • Donors • Michael and Katherine Birck • William and Mary Ann Bindley • Burton D. Morgan • Glenn and Edna Mann • Economic Development Corporations • Indiana Economic Development Corporation • Rotary Club • United Way Michael and Katherine Birck Burton D. Morgan William and Mary Ann Bindley Glenn and Edna Mann

  21. Purdue: Past and Present Nancy Ho Molecular Geneticist R&D 100 Award (1998) for Better Yeast Neil Armstrong First Person to set foot on the Moon July 20, 1969 Leslie Geddes Winner of National Medal of Technology 2006 Medical Devices & Tissue Engineering Ardent Bement Director 2005-Present National Science Foundation

  22. Purdue: Future Developing strategy to double funding from $300 million to $600 million

  23. Purdue: FutureDiscovery Park Developing Infrastructure to Use Interdisciplinary Approach to Address Global Grand Challenges Energy Independence Global Warming Homeland Security Healthcare

  24. Thank you. This slide presentation is posted on the Internet at: www.purdue.edu/research/vpr/staff/rutledge.shtml